##Znidarsic, Franck P.E, 1998, PART 1:
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# Chapter 0: http://www.angelfire.com/scifi2/zpt/chapter0.html
undefined , I hope that you are enjoying this work. Due to bandwidth and other limitations some features are not available on line. To obtain the more complete historic “Zero Point Technologies” CD go to http://www.mv.com/ipusers/zeropoint/IEHTML/prodcat/index.html
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What this text is not. This authors’ work is not a unification of the forces. Unification takes place at high energies. The author’s work is at low energy. The forces retain there identity at low energies. This author does not claim to have discovered new physics. No new physical phenomena were discovered. One known physical phenomena, the quantum transtion, is described in terms of its path.
What this is.Existing quantum physics describes nature in terms of the stationary quantum states. This is a reorganization of the existing physical constants. A new set of constants describes nature in terms of the path of the quantum transition.
Why do this?The new set of parameters demonstarate that it is possibile to directly control of each of the natural forces.
# A PARTIAL BIBLIOGRAPHY
– Jeane Manning ” The Coming Energy Revolution ” Avery Publishing Group, Garden City Park, New York
– Fred Hoyle, ” Astronomy and Cosmology “, W.H. Freeman and Co., San Francisco CA. 1975
– ” Isaac Asmov, Asmov’s New Guide to Science “, Basic Books Inc., New York, NY 1972
– Donald E. Tilley & Walter Thumm, ” College Physics ” , Cummings Publishing Co. Menlo Park, CA
– William.L. Masterton & Emil J. Slowinski, ” Chemical Principles “, W.B. Sanders Co. Philadelphia, PA. 1973
– J. Gorden Stipe Jr. ” The Development of Physical Theories “, McGraw Hill, New York, N.Y. 1967
– Steven N. Shore & Robert A. Meyers,” Encyclopedia of Modern Physics “, Academic Press Inc. New York, N.Y. 1990
– Paul A. Tipler, ” Foundations of Modern Physics “, Worth Publishers, New York, N.Y. 1969
– Paul Davies and John Gribben, ” The Matter Myth “, Touchstone Books, New York, N.Y. 1992
– Herbert Butterfield, ” The Origins of Modern Science “, Free Press, New York, N.Y. 1965
– Brooke N. Moore & Kenneth Bruder,” Philosophy “, Mayfield Publishing Co., London U.K. 1990
– Nick Herbert, ” Quantum Reality “, Anchor Books, New York, N.Y. 1985
– Moray B. King, ” Tapping the Zero-Point Energy “, Paraclete Publishing, Provo, UT 1989
– Michael C. Mackey, ” Time’s Arrow “, Springer-Verlag, New York, N.Y. 1992
– Issac Asmov, ” Understanding Physics ” , Mentor Books, New York, N.Y. 1969
– Milton S. Kiver, ” UHF Antennas Converters & Tuners,” Howard W. Sams, 1953
– Kenneth S. Krane, ” Introductory Nuclear Physics “, John Wiley and Sons, 1988
– Ian Stewart, ” Does God Play Dice “, Basil Blackwell Ltd, 1989
– Eugene Hecht, ” Optics “, Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, 1990
– Brooke Noel Moore & Kenneth Bruder, ” Philosophy “, Mayfield Publishing Company, 1990
– Niels C. Nielsen Jr., Norvin Hein, Frank Reynolds, ” Religions of the World “, St. Martin’s Press, New York
– Lawrence M. Krauss, ” The Fifth Essence and the Search for Dark Matter “, Basic Books Inc New York, 1989
– Richard C. Dorf, ” The Electrical Engineering Handbook “, CRC Press, Raton Florida, 1993
– Edward W. Kolb & Michael S. Turner,” The Early Universe “, Addison-Wesley Publishing Co. Redwood City California, 1990
– ” Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion “, EPRI Report TR-104188-V1
– ” Development of Advanced Concepts for Nuclear Processes In Deuterated Metals “, EPRI Report TR-104195
– Raymond A. Serway, Clement J. Moses, Curt A. Moyer,” Modern Physics “, Saunders College Publishing, 1997
– The Lex Foundation, ” What is Quantum Mechanics ” I really liked this book. It helped a lot.
# Some physical constants used in this text :
Phase velocity = c = 3 x 108 meters /second
Group velocity = V = Any velocity less than light speed
The velocity of quantum transition = The velocity with respect to an elastic discontinuity = 1.094 x 10 6 meters / second
The quantum of capacitance = Cq = 1.568 x 10 -25 Farads
The classical radius of the electron = rp = 1.409 x 10 -15 meters
The limiting radius of the proton = rp = 1.409 x 10 -15 meters
The Compton frequency of the electron = Fc = 1.236 x 10 20 hertz
The Compton frequency of the nucleons = Fp = 2.27 x 10 20 hertz
The maximum of force between two electrons = Fe = 29.05 Newtons
The maximum nuclear force = Fp = 9.58 x 10 6 Newtons
The radius of the hydrogen atom = rh = .5292 x 10-10 meters
Thanks again for the purchase of the CD,
Frank Znidarsic P.E.
// End of Introduction …………………………………………………………………..
# Chapter 1 “Cold Fusion”, An Historic Overview http://www.angelfire.com/scifi2/zpt/chapter1.html
In 1989 Pons, Fleischmann, and Hawkins reported that their “cold fusion” electrochemical experiment had produced excess energy. This report created an international sensation. The NBC nightly news reported that “The energy crisis is over!”
Pons and Fleischmann’s work is currently being continued at ENECO in Salt Lake City USA. Dr. Edmund Storms, formerly a Director at ENECO, reported that many of his heavy water cells do generate a few watts of anomalous power.1
… Many other reputable laboratories, however, were not able to duplicate the results. Contemporary theories of fusion describe the following three reactions.
D + D –> H + T (deuterium + deuterium –> hydrogen & tritium)
D + D —> n + 3He (deuterium + deuterium –> neutron & helium 3)
D + D —> 4He + g (deuterium + deuterium –> helium 4 & 24 a MeV gamma ray).
http://www.angelfire.com/scifi2/zpt/images/eneco.gif Historic picture. Pick the link to view a heavy water cold fusion cell at ENECO. The scale and the gas capture tubes are used to measure the energy lost in the electrolysis process. This loss is know as recombination.
At the Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion, M. Rabinowitz of the Electric Power Research Institute, Y.E. Kime of Purdue, and V.A. Chechin and V.A. Tsarev of the Russian Academy of Sciences reported that four miracles were required if the process of cold fusion to progressed by known reactions.
The four miracles are:
1. “The Fusion Rate Miracle” From their study of the conditions within the cold fusion electrode they concluded that the fusion rate must be vanishingly low. There appears to be no mechanism to overcome the electrical forces that keep nucleons apart.
2. “The Branching Ratio Miracle” Gamma and X-rays are a signature of a fusion reaction. Gamma radiation commensurate with the liberated energy has not been detected. The only known nuclear process that is sensitive to pressure or chemical effects is electron capture. The process of electron capture produces known emission signatures. These signatures have not been detected.
3. “The No Nuclear Products Miracle” Helium is a by-product of a heavy water nuclear reaction. Helium commensurate with the energy liberated has not been detected. Helium-4 exists naturally in the atmosphere at a concentration of about 5 parts per million. The experiments that reported the detection of Helium may have been contaminated by an in leakage of air.
4. “No Neutrons miracle.” Neutrons are a signature of a fusion reaction. None have been detected.
The process of cold fusion did not fit into any theoretical model, and most of the national laboratories were not able to replicate the results. Cold fusion fell into disfavor. Many major scientific publications refused, and still refuse, even to publish articles related to cold fusion.
An ever increasing number of labs, however, continued to publish reports of unexplained excess energy. The prestigious Electric Power Research Institute was one of them. In August ,1994, EPRI released its final report #TR-104195. EPRI concluded,
“The excess heat generated in electrochemical cells with palladium cathodes and heavy water electrolyte appears to be far too large to result from chemical or metallurgical transformation. The evidence implies that the heat source is a nuclear reaction of some as yet undetermined nature…..This work confirms the claims of Fleischmann, Pons, and Hawkins ……..Tritium, neutrons, or gamma rays are not quantitatively correlated with the excess power production observed.”
http://www.angelfire.com/scifi2/zpt/case.html Historic picture. Pick the link to view & hear Dr. Les Case. Dr. Case is experimenting with deuterium gas, palladium cathode cold fusion cells. The lecture was given in Concord N.H. on October 12th 1998. Dr. Case is a chemical engineer with four degrees from MIT.
The “cold fusion” process was producing real energy; however, it was becoming clear that the process is not one of conventional nuclear fusion. Dr. Hal Puthoff’s http://www.angelfire.com/scifi2/zpt/puthoff.html (Director of the Institute for Advanced Study in Austin) zero point energy theory may offer some answers to this mystery.
… How can the CETI cell produce fusion power with light water?
The probability of two heavy water molecules coming together in a light water cell is very small. Ordinary water contains only a small amount of heavy water (1 part in 7,000). The only possible explanation was that light water fusing with heavy water.
H + D —> 3He
The product of this reactions is helium 3. Helium 3 exists in extremely small quantities in the atmosphere. It would be relatively simple to detect its production. No helium-3 has been detected.
In September of 1996 George Miley released his report on the CETI device, “Nuclear Transmutations in Thin-Film Nickel Coatings Undergoing Electrolysis.”
George Miley http://www.angelfire.com/scifi2/zpt/miley.html reported:
“…chemically-assisted nuclear reactions are not widely accepted by the scientific community. The present results not only confront that disbelief, but add a new dimension to the issue by reporting copious light and heavy element reaction products that seem to imply multi-body reactions due to the formation of heavier elements such as Cu and Ag from Ni…..chemically assisted nuclear reactions opens the way to a whole new field of science.”4
http://www.angelfire.com/scifi2/zpt/movies/miley.AVI Historic video. Pick the link to view a video taken of Dr. Miley’s lecture at the First International Conference on Future Energy in Washington DC 4/99.
http://www.angelfire.com/scifi2/zpt/wright.html Historic picture. Miley reports his results at the Wright Patterson Air Force Base.
… Cavitational Technologies
At the time of this writing the cold fusion phenomenon has resulted in the investigation of a host of other new energy technologies. 8Devices which operate on the principle of cavitation are also producing excess energy.9, 10The Griggs machine has an impeller like a pump. It produces 15% more energy than it consumes. Griggs’s machines are running in the 50 HP range.
http://www.angelfire.com/scifi2/zpt/images/griggs.gif Pick the link to view an the Griggs Pump.
http://www.angelfire.com/scifi2/zpt/russia.html Yury Potapov in Russia. 1997.
http://www.angelfire.com/scifi2/zpt/yusmar.html Pick the link to view an animation of Yury Potapov’s Yusmar energy generator.
This author has worked 9/96 working with Yury Potapov (inventor of the Yusmar device) in attempt to bring a commercial cold fusion cell to the market.
A company called Innovative Energy Solutions Inc. ( iESi ) has acquired the technology of Dr. Hyunik Yang and his team. This cavitational technology is reportedly producing a considerable quantity of anomalous energy. This author cannot verify this claim.
… This chapter ends at the beginning; the beginning to the end of air pollution, the beginning of the end to the rape of the earth for fuel, and the beginning of an age of limitless energy. Thank you for taking the time to read it.
# NOTES :
1 – ” Cold Fusion A Challenge to Modern Science? “, Edmund Storms, The Journal of Scientific Exploration, Vol 9, No. 4, pp 585-594, 1995
2 – This device was invented and patented by Dr. Patterson of Sarasota, Florida. Patents: # 5,372,688 and #5,318,675
3 – ABC News ran a Nightline special about the Patterson Cell on February 7, 1996. Copies of the show can be obtained from ABC at 1-800-913-3434
4 – Low level nuclear reactions appear to have been discovered in 1913. ” On the Appearance of Helium and Neon in Vacuum Tubes, Nature, February 13, 1913.
5 – Proceedings from ICCF6, Page 22
6 – ” On One of Energy Generation Mechanism in Unitary Quantum Theory ” Lev G. Sapogin, Department of Physics, Technical University Leningradsky prospect 64, A-319, 125829, Moscow
7 – http://188.8.131.52/netacgi/nph-Parser?Sect1=PTO1&Sect2=HITOFF&d=PALL&p=1&u=/netahtml/srchnum.htm&r=1&f=G&l=50&s1=5,273,635.WKU.&OS=PN/5,273,635&RS=PN/5,273,635
8 – ” Replication of the Apparent Excess Heat Effect in a Light Water- Potassium Carbonate-Nickel Electrolytic Cell. ” Janis M. Niedra, Ira T. Myers, Gustave C. Fralick, and Richard S. Baldwin. http://techreports.larc.nasa.gov/cgi-bin/NTRS search for 107167
9 – The relationship between zero point energy and the luminescence observed in the cavitation devices has now reached main stream publications. Nature, 27 June 96, Page 736
10 – ” Can Sound Drive Fusion in a Bubble? ” SCIENCE, Vol 266, December 1994.
11 – The Yusmar Scientific Co. , Fabrichnaya St. 4 Kishinev 27700S , Republic of Moldova
# Additional Cold Fusion References:
” Latest Cold Fusion Results Fail to Win Over Skeptics “, Chemical & Engineering News Vol 71, No 24, P 38, 6/14/1993
” Japanese Funds Warm a Conference of Cold Fusion Die-Hards in Maui “, The Wall Street Journal, Thursday December 9, 1993
” Cold Fusion Energy Output Can be Tamed, Research Says “, Electric Light and Power, November 1992
” Some Scientists Press Search for Cold Fusion Despite Failure of 89 “, The Wall Street Journal, 7/14/94
“..Cold Fusion is a Nuclear Process..”, Popular Science, August 1993
Randell L. Mills, William R. Good ” Fractional Quantum Levels of Hydrogen ” ; FUSION TECHNOLOGY, Vol. 28 (November 1995), pp. 1697-1719
The American Physical Society and cold fusion see: http://www.aps.org/meet/MAR02/baps/abs/S7810.html
Scientific American on Sono Fusion: http://www.sciam.com/explorations/2002/031802fusion/
// end of chapter 1 …………………………………………………………………..
# Chapter 2, BALL LIGHTNING http://www.angelfire.com/scifi2/zpt/chapter2.html
This author’s father recounted a story from his childhood. As the family sat in the kitchen on a rainy day, lightning hit near the chimney. Moments later a plasma fire ball emerged from an open plate on the cook stove. This fireball floated across the floor, out the open kitchen door, and vanished in the garden.
The Plasma ball was about as bright as a 100 watt light bulb. This story is consistent with many other ball lightning accounts. These accounts tell us something about the nature of ball lightning. From these accounts we can glean the following information:
1. The fact that it sinks in the atmosphere reveals that it is denser than air.
2.That fact it does not move with projectile motion and drifts along in the atmosphere reveals that it is not much denser than air.
3. Its luminosity (about a bright as a 100 watt light bulb) reveals that it is a “cool” (less than 5,000 degrees C) plasma.
4. Its “long” few second life reveals that its energy is somehow being replenish.
The famous Russian ball lightning researcher P.L. Kapista calculated that the thermal energy stored within a small plasma fireball could maintain its luminosity for no more than .01 seconds. Kapista suggested that a natural radio wave is the external source energy required to account for the unexpectedly long lifetime of ball lightning. Kapista gave no explanation of how the radio waves are maintained in free space without a metal waveguide.1
This author believes that ball lightning extracts zero point energy from free space. Many experiments were designed to produce a ball of lightning and measure its energy. The experiments conducted fall into three general categories. These categories are:
1. Low pressure arc
2. High current
# LOW PRESSURE ARC EXPERIMENTS
Low pressure arc experiments were conducted by Frank Znidarsic in the late 1980’s. These experiments were designed to produce a high density plasma or ball of lightning A vacuum jar was obtained from Frey Scientific. The base of the jar was modified to bring in high voltage cables. A high voltage power supply was used to charge a bank of capacitors to a potential of 5,000 volts. This bank of capacitors, containing 100 joules of energy was then discharged into the low pressure containment. Large blooming, diffuse arcs were formed. Various gasses and different electrode configurations were tried. The color of the arc varied depending on the gas that was placed into the jar.
In one embodiment the entire device was powered by batteries and charged to a potential of to 100,000 volts with a large Van-de-Graff generator. Disappointingly, the high voltage had little effect on the arc. The result of these experiments was negative. Ball lighting did not tend to form at low pressures. In fact, the result of these experiments indicated that the dense plasma associated with ball lighting will more readily form at high pressure.
Equipment was not available to explore arcs at high pressure. In lieu of performing the actual experiments, inquires were made to many underwater welding firms. Fire balls were indeed observed by divers welding at high current (900 amps) at great depths (600 feet).2Deep diver, Jack Couch, swatted at one of these balls. He then discovered a bit of slag in his glove. Jack believes that these fire balls are not balls of lightning but rather bits of molten slag trapped in an air bubble.
In 1992, Harold E. Puthoff, the director of the Institute for Advanced Study in Austin, Texas, was also conducting low pressure arc experiments. Puthoff experiments followed up on the early energy experiments of Kenneth Shoulders. Puthoff’s drove an arc with a sharply pulsing electrical current. He used electrodes made of a heavy metal. Dr. Puthoff has had some success and produced tiny amounts of excess energy. He has not, however, been able to scale up the process.
http://www.angelfire.com/scifi2/zpt/puthoff.html Historic picture. Pick the link to view Puthoff’s early ball lightning experiments. Micro-plasma balls were produced in the vacuum chamber at which Puthoff is pointing. Puthoff’s measured tiny amounts of anomalous energy.
# HIGH CURRENT EXPERIMENTS
High current experiments were conducted by Frank Znidarsic and Frank Stenger in the late 1980’s and early 1990’s. These experiments discharged a large (1/10 farad) bank of capacitors through a potential of 1,000 volts. Various electrode arrangements and magnetic field configurations were tried. A video camera and an oscilloscope were used to monitor the action. The oscilloscope showed that the bank of capacitors discharged through the arc in about one milli-second. The arc current was calculated from the oscilloscope trace. Currents of over 250,000 amps were produced. The video showed the arc explosion in 1/30 of a second frames. The slow motion replay showed many fire balls spewing from the arc. Inspection of the video and of the experimental device revealed that these fireballs were hot vaporized burning fragments of electrode metal (aluminum and copper). No balls of lightning were observed. You will hear Frank Stenger announcing the test, followed by the sound of the tripping mechanism, then the blast.
http://www.angelfire.com/scifi2/zpt/explode.html Pick the left icon to view Frank Stenger’s high current ball lightning experiment.
http://www.angelfire.com/scifi2/zpt/movies/Stenger.avi Pick the link to view a movie of Frank Stenger’s ball lightning experiment.
http://www.angelfire.com/scifi2/zpt/images/stenger.gif Pick the link to view a schematic of Stenger’s machine.
http://www.angelfire.com/scifi2/zpt/graneau.html Pick the link to view the plasma ball the formed at the base of Peter Graneau’s high current water arc experiment. This plasma ball persisted for a few video frames after the main arc extinguished.
http://www.angelfire.com/scifi2/zpt/movies/toka.AVI Stenger’s Tokatron high current ball lightning device. 97,000 micro farads were discharged through 1,050 volts. The plan was for the lighting ball to exit the top of the device into the catcher plate above.
# MICROWAVE EXPERIMENTS
Microwave experiments were conducted by Frank Znidarsic and Frank Stenger in the early 1990’s. These experiments were of three types. These types are:
1. Experiments that produced an arc discharge within a microwave cavity.
2. Experiments that produced a plasma by placing a high potential needle point in a microwave cavity.
3. Experiments employing a cage around the microwave wave guide.
http://www.angelfire.com/scifi2/zpt/exper.html Pick the link to view types of microwave experiments.
Microwaves were generated with a 900 watt microwave oven. Arcs were produced in the oven by remotely drawing two electrodes apart. These electrodes were fed by a 50 kilowatt compound opposed generator. Various materials were tried as electrodes. When both electrodes were made of metal they tended to stick together. The remote control mechanism was not able to draw the stuck electrodes apart. This problem was resolved by using one graphite electrode. A capacitor was installed between the high voltage electrode and ground at the point at which the high voltage electrode entered into the microwave cavity. This capacitor was constructed from a glass tube inserted between two cylindrical pipes. The capacitor was designed to limit microwave leakage to 10 milliwatts per cm2. Ferrite toroids, obtained from Palamor Electronics Company, were also used to limit the microwave leakage. The toroids were placed around the electrode at the point at where it entered the cavity. The experiments were monitored with a video camera. Several flashes and floating fireballs were observed. It is believed that these fireballs were produced by burning carbon that was given off by the graphite electrode. No balls of lightning were observed.
http://www.angelfire.com/scifi2/zpt/movies/Arc.avi Pick the link to view a movie of an arc microwave experiment. The machine running in the background is a welding generator.
# HIGH VOLTAGE MICROWAVE EXPERIMENTS
A needle shaped electrode was inserted into the microwave cavity. A high voltage direct current electrical potential was placed on the electrode. Microwave leakage was again controlled with ferrite toroids and capacitors. It proved difficult to construct a leakage capacitor that could withstand the high voltages and the microwave energies. Special high temperature Pyrex glass had to be used in the construction of the capacitor. Electrical potentials were tried of up to 100,000 volts. At potentials greater than 30 kilovolts an arc would jump from the electrode to the wall of the microwave cavity. This arc would shunt the desired high voltage to ground. The potential on the electrode was therefore limited to about 30,000 volts. Various materials were tried at the needle point of the electrode. Both positive , negative, and pulsed D.C. potentials were tried. The microwave oven was modified by removing the microwave stirrer, rerouting the air flow, and modifying the magnetron’s power supply. The potential to the magnetron’s anode is supplied, in commercial microwave ovens, by a half wave voltage doubling 4,000 volt power supply. This supply was replaced with a full wave supply. This increased the power output of the magnetron tube to approximately 900 watts. These experiments did result in the production of a few floating plasmoids.
http://www.angelfire.com/scifi2/zpt/oven.html Pick the link to view the plasma ball that was produced in a microwave chamber.
The plasmoids lasted for about .5 seconds. In one case the microwave’s power was switched off at the moment the plasmoid formed. The plasmoid immediately extinguished. The fact the plasmoid did not persist indicates that the plasmoid’s energy was supplied by the microwave field. The formation of freely floating plasmoid was a rare event under “identical” conditions. The mechanism that resulted in the rare event has not been determined. The process seemed to work better at high microwave energies, with a heavy metal needle, and with a pulsed positive D.C. potential on the electrode.
# HELIUM EXPERIMENTS
Helium was tried because its nucleus contains an even number of nucleons. A nucleus with an even number of nucleons is a Boson. The helium was obtained from a local welding supply house in a small “D” sized cylinder. This helium was emitted into the microwave cavity. Upon the admission of the helium, the arc changed from a bright white (arc type discharge) to a dull blue (glow type discharge). The helium tended to arrest the arc and did not produce the desired effect.
# NATURE ARTICLE VOLUME 246 March 14, 1991
Experiments were conducted by Y.H Ohtsuke and H. Ofuruton at the University of Okubo in Japan. These experiments were run at 5 kilowatts of microwave energy. On several occasions the plasmoid were produced that persisted for several seconds after the magnetron was turned off. Excess energy appears to have been produced. Ofuruton concluded,
“We can find no reasonable explanation for the fire balls lasting for such a long time after the magnetron was turned off.”
Ofuruton has since appeared on network television in Japan. During one of these appearances he generated a ball of lightning. He added methane gas to get the ball going. As it turns out Ofuruton is quite a show man. This author is beginning to question the accuracy of his reports.
# THE EXPERIMENTS OF JAMES & KENNETH COURM
James and Kenneth Corum of Corum & Associates in Windsor, Ohi, are producing balls of lighting with two synchronously pulsed high power oscillators. Their device is modeled after a machine built by Nikola Tesla in 1897. They claim that their device has produced balls of lightning. 3This author does not understand the principles behind the mixing of two radio frequency waves. The Corums have moved from Windsor. This author is currently trying to locate the two brothers.
# THE U.S.S. CUTLASS INCIDENT
During the “Guppy Reconversion Program” in 1945, tests were performed on the electrical gear of the submarine the U.S.S. Cutlass. During these tests a fully charged bank of batteries was accidentally connected across a non-spinning generator. The reverse current circuit breaker opened and interrupted the resulting short circuit.
http://www.angelfire.com/scifi2/zpt/images/corum.gif Historic video. Pick the link to view a movie taken in the breaker room in a 1940’s Cutlass class submarine. The lever was pulled closing the batteries in around a dead generator. This resulted in a fault. The high fault current tripped the field circuit breaker. The background sound is demolition in progress. The image left, from the Pacific Submarine Command, was reproduced with permission. )
A green fireball floated out of the circuit breaker into the engine room. The life of this fireball was about one second. Paul A. Silberg of the Raytheon Company investigated this (and other similar) incident in 1962.4Silberg concluded that “Some configurational energy must be present” in the plasma balls. Silberg offered an explanation to account for the excess energy. He said that the energy of the plasma ball was contained within a loop of current. This current loop exists within the plasma. The stable existence of such a loop of current requires a “force free field configuration”. Since Silberg’s investigation it has been proven that such “force free field” configurations cannot exist. This proof is know as the Viral theorem. It is interesting to note that the short circuit in the submarine generated a current of about 150,000 amps. Stenger’s experiments exceeded this current threshold and did not produce ball lightning.
http://www.angelfire.com/scifi2/zpt/breaker.html Pick the link to view a drawing of the reverse current breaker aboard the Cutlass that produced the ball of lightning.
# THE PLASMAK
The “Plasma Mantle Kernel” device or “PLASMAK” TM, is the invention of Paul M. Koloc of College Park, MD. 5This device uses an ultra-violet flash lamp and mirrors to produce an “image”. An electrical voltage is then applied across the ionized path of the “image”. The resulting arc follows the helical path of the “image”. Electrical forces compress the helical arc into what Koloc calls a “Magnetoplasmoid.” These “Magnetoplasmoids” or balls of lightning have lifetimes of about 30 milli-seconds.
http://www.angelfire.com/scifi2/zpt/images/plasmak.gif Pick the icon to view a schematic of the Plasmak.
Much of Koloc’s work is held as a trade secret. Frank Stenger, who this author trusts as an expert in the field, has stated that Koloc’s work is sound.
Radio Frequency Plasma Balls
In November 28, 1988 ‘Sofia BTA in English’ 1426 GMT 18 reported: “Bulgarian engineer Kiril Chukanov has completed his work on a new physics theory: “Quantum Limits of the World”. It is a scientific analysis of the essence, behavior and the emission of great quantities of energy from ball lightning which cannot be explained with the known physical laws. According to the ‘Orbita Weekly’ the phenomenon studied by Chukanov and especially its practical application is so significant that it could cause a revolution in world energetics with all the consequences ensuing from it.”
Mark Goldies and his company Magnetic Power Inc. brought Chukanov to Sebastopol California in the early 1980’s. Chukanov was never able to demonstrate his technology at Magnetic Power. Currenlty Chukanov is continuing his work at his own company.
reference http://www.chukanovenergy.com/ (as for 2007, plasma balls of 1 meter in diameter are shown on this website )
# CONCLUSION :
An indication of the density of the plasmoid is the direction of travel. All of the plasmoids produced to date rose. This fact demonstrates that the plasmoids were lighter than air. Natural ball lightning sinks in the atmosphere indicating that its density is greater than that of air.6It is believed that if the density of the plasma could be increased to the point at which the plasmoid sinks in the atmosphere, it would begin to absorb zero point energy from free space. The plasma’s electron density would have to have to be denser greater than 1027 electrons/m3. The plasma at this density can be considered to be a condensation. A strong force is required to hold such a plasma condensation together. Puthoff has shown that the Casimar force http://www.angelfire.com/scifi2/zpt/casimar.html may be able to momentarily hold a plasma condensation together. In practice, plasmas of this density have not yet been produced. This author has completed his work at microwave energies below 1000 watts. Higher energies may be needed to produce plasma balls of sufficient density to extract the zero point energy of matter.
1. P.L. Kapista, Dokl.Akad. Nauk. SSSR 101,245 (1955);Phys. Blatter” The Nature of Ball Lightning ” Stanley Singer, Plenum Press, New York. 1971
2. To dive to this depth Jack had to breath Trimix a mixture of nitrogen, helium, and oxygen. Six days of decompression was required. Dives this deep are a dangerous venture.
3. TESLA COIL BUILDERS ASSOCIATION, News Volume 8, #3, 1989, 3 Amy Lane Queensbury, NY
4. “Ball Lightning and Plasmoids ” Paul A. Silberg Journal of Geophysical Research Volume 67, No. 12 November 1962
5. “PLASMAK TM Star Power for Energy Intensive Space Applications ” FUSION TECHNOLOGY, VOL 15 1989, Pages 1136-1141
6. “Energy Transfer Problems of Ball Lightning “, GY. Egely, Central Research Institute of Physics, Budapest, Hungry, HU ISSN 0368 5330
– Nano Particles and Ball Lightning see: http://www.abc.net.au/science/news/default.htm
// end of chapter 2 …………………………………………………………………..
# Chapter 3, LEVITATIONAL TECHNOLOGIES, Conventional, unconventional, and antigravitational http://www.angelfire.com/scifi2/zpt/chapter3.html
THE LIMITATIONS OF A ROCKET
Rockets operate on the basis of Newton’s second law. This law states that every action produces an equal and opposite reaction. The force that drives a rocket forward is produced in opposition to the ejection of a rocket’s exhaust. In more exact terms, the momentum of the gas exiting a rocket equals the forward momentum delivered to the rocket.
The momentum of the rocket = The momentum of the exhaust; MassrocketVelocityrocket = MassexhaustVelocityexhaust
The momentum delivered to a rocket varies directly with the mass and velocity of the gas ejected from the rocket. The mass that is ejected from a rocket is carried by the rocket in the form of a propellant fuel. There is a limit to the amount of fuel that can be carried by a rocket. Consequentially, a rocket can only exhaust a limited number of pounds of gas. In order to get sufficient thrust from a limited weight of gas, rockets must exhaust gas at very high velocities. The kinetic energy of moving matter increases with the square of the exhaust’s velocity.
KINETIC ENERGY = 1/2 Mv2
BMost of the energy contained in a rocket’s fuel is expended in the rocket’s high velocity exhaust stream. Only a small portion of the fuel’s energy is actually imparted to the rocket. This is a limitation inherent to all rockets. This limitation restricts the weight of a rocket’s payload to a small percentage of the rocket’s weight. One way to increase a rocket’s efficiency would be to expel more mass from its exhaust stream. The ejection of additional mass would deliver more momentum to the rocket and reduce the kinetic energy thrown away to its exhaust stream. Additional mass cannot be obtained by placing more fuel into a rocket. Additional fuel will make the rocket heavier. The additional weight will negate any gains in efficiency that were obtained from the more massive exhaust stream.
Mass can be obtained from the atmosphere. Airplanes, for example, grab air with their wings, propellers, and jet engines. The weight of the air thrown down by an airplane greatly exceeds the weight of the plane’s fuel. Airplanes are, therefore, much more efficient than rockets. In order to get into space, rockets must travel at hypersonic velocities. It is difficult to get a stable flame in air breathing jet engines at hypersonic velocities. Hypersonic engine technology is, however, being developed. This technology will allow a single stage vehicle to reach orbit.
Better, more efficient launch vehicles are needed to colonize space. The engines in these vehicles must be very efficient. The most efficient engine would not expel a light gas. It would push away from a heavy object. In the future, advanced propulsion systems will push down upon the large mass of the earth. Very little kinetic energy will be transferred to the earth. All of the fuel’s energy will be imparted to the vehicle. These engines will be very efficient.
The idea of magnetically propelling a space craft as been around for a long time. In 1950, Frank Scully wrote in “Behind the Flying Saucers”
“Now that we have learned that these ships from another world fly magnetically, it is my opinion that our own magnetic engieers will solve the problem magnetic flight and match the ships of the visitors with saucers made on this earth.”
More recently, Dr. Jan Pajak of Invercargill New Zealand spent many years developing methods of using the earth’s magnetic field to propel a spacecraft. He designed a machine called the magnocraft. Pajak’s magnocraft http://www.angelfire.com/scifi2/zpt/pajak.html is a simple device that operates on the principle of magnetic repulsion. 1, 2
Pajak tried to design a magnet strong enough to push away from one of the earth’s magnetic poles. The required strength was called, by Pajak and his associates in Poland, the starting flux. After many years of work, Pajak uncovered some serious problems. The problems have to do with dipole forces. An example will be offered to explain the problems Pajak encountered. An attractive force is developed between the opposite poles of a dipole, and a repulsive force is developed between the like poles of a dipole.
TWO CLOSELY SPACED DIPOLES
In the figure above, an attractive force is developed between poles #1 & #3 and poles #2 & #4. A repulsive force is developed between poles #2 & #3, and poles #1 & #4. The repulsive force between poles #2 & #3 is much stronger than the forces developed between the other poles. A stronger force is produced because the distance between poles #2 & #3 is the least. As the general rule, the force between two dipoles, which are separated by a distance shorter than their length, drops off with the square of their separation distance.
The figure below depicts two dipoles separated by a distance longer than their length.
TWO DIPOLES SPACED AT A DISTANCE
In this second example, the distance separating the dipole’s opposite poles is about the same as the distance separating the dipole’s like poles. The attractive force between poles #1 & #3, and poles #2 & #4 is about equal to the repulsive force between poles #2 & #3 and poles #1 and #4. As a general rule, the force between two dipoles, which are separated by a distance greater than their length, drops off with the forth power of their separation distance. Any force that decreases with the fourth power drops off to almost nothing in rather short order. This is the reason that inductance is a local phenomena. Dr. Pajak found that the only real force produced by dipoles, separated by a distance greater then their length, is rotational. The magnocraft would not levitate, it would only spin on the ground like a compass. Pajak is still working on the problem, he is examining every detail in his search for a solution. 8
Literature abounds with descriptions of spaceships that “ride a beam”.2 “He found he was getting a strong 3000 mcs signal from about there 2 o’clock position, just the relative bearing at which the unknown luminous source had blinked out moments earlier.” Astronautics & Aeronautics July 1971, http://homepage.ntlworld.com/ufophysics/jimcd.htm
A beam ship operates by ejecting a beam of energy. The momentum carried by a beam of electromagnetic energy is equal to the energy in the beam divided by the speed of light. Any means no exceptions, This author should know; he spent years in a misguided effort attempting to produce a high momentum beam of electromagnetic energy. Any includes light beams, radar beams, laser beams, and X-ray beams. Flows of energy are measured in watts. The relationship between the flow of energy in watts and the momentum of the energy flow is:
Momentum = (Watts) / (3 x 108 meters/second)
A large power plant burning 600 tons of coal an hour can produce 1,800,000,000 watts of energy. If the entire output of the plant was channeled into a beam of energy, this beam would generate a meager 6 newtons of thrust. Six newtons of thrust will just about lift a two ounce mass. The efficiency of a beam ship is very low. Rockets are better, at least a rocket can get off of the ground.
A sensitive experiment performed by Hideo Hayasaka and Sakae Takeuchi of the engineering faculty at Tohoku University Sendai, Japan, detected a faint gravitomagnetic that was induced by a super high speed Gyroscope. They found that rapidly spinning gyroscopes tended to loose weight. Gyroscopes weighing 176 grams lost 11 thousandths of a gram when spun at 216 revolutions/second. 3General Relativity states that a gravitomagnetic field will be produced by a spinning mass. The gravitomagnetic field is similar in structure to the magnetic field produced by an electron moving in a circle. The gravitomagnetic field, however, is very much weaker than its electromagnetic counterpart.
http://www.angelfire.com/scifi2/zpt/images/fields.gif Pick the link to view various induced fields.
The gravitomagnetic field of a spinning mass is attached to the kinetic energy of the spinning mass and is very weak. Sensitive satellite experiments (ie the Stanford Gravity Probe-B Experiment) are just barely able to detect the gravitomagnetic field associated with the whole of the spinning earth.
In 1992, a gravitational field was detected above a rotating superconductive disk by researchers at the Tampere University in Finland. This effect was 300 million times stronger than the effect observed with the gyroscope in Japan. This gravitomagnetic field is is attached to the mass energy of the spinning superconductor (not the kinetic energy as in the case of the spinning gyroscope) and is very much stronger. The will be explained in detail in later chapters.
http://www.angelfire.com/scifi2/zpt/images/tampere.gif Pick the link to view the gravitational devices invented by Dr. Eugene Podkletnov at Tampere University. This device produces a local gravitomagnetic field. Note: For the gravitomagnetic field local is a few hundred meters.
http://www.angelfire.com/scifi2/zpt/images/impulse.gif This device generates a high momentum gravitational emission. Note: For a gravitational emission momentum is much greater than E/c.
In an historic new release in September of 1996, Robert Matthews and Ian Sample of the ‘Sunday Telegraph’ UK reported 4:
“Scientists in Finland are about to reveal details of the world’s first anti- gravity device. Measuring about 12in across, the device is said to reduce significantly the weight of anything suspended over it…..
According to Dr. Eugene Podkletnov (right), who led the research, the discovery was accidental…………….The team was carrying out tests on a rapidly spinning disc of superconducting ceramic suspended in the magnetic field of three electric coils, all enclosed in a low-temperature vessel called a cryostat.
“One of my friends came in and he was smoking his pipe,” Dr Eugene Podkletnov said. “He put some smoke over the cryostat and we saw that the smoke was going to the ceiling all the time. It was amazing – we couldn’t explain it.”
In February of 1997 ‘Final Frontier’ Magazine reported that Ning Li was following up on Podkletnov’s work at NASA Marshall.
“NASA is working with theorist Ning Li of the University of Alabama at Huntsville. Equipment and test materials are being prepped for a set of experiments that could, if successful, lead to new knowledge about gravity fields. If Li’s ideas work, modifying and controlling gravity may be the outcome………”
In NASA Technical Memorandum 107,289, “The Challenge to Create the Space Drive”, Marc G. Millis of NASA Lewis writes:
“New theories have emerged suggesting that gravitational an inertial forces are caused by interaction with the electromagnetic fluctuations of the vacuum. There have also been studies suggesting experimental tests for mass altering affects…….it may be time to revisit the notion of creating the visionary “space drive.” Space drive, as defined here, is an idealized form of propulsion where the fundamental properties of matter and space-time are used to create propulsive forces anywhere in space without having to carry and expel a reaction mass.”
http://www.angelfire.com/scifi2/zpt/images/witt.gif Historic picture. Pick the link to view a picture of Witt Brantley Chief of NASA’s Advanced Concepts Office showing Frank Znidarsic one of the mechanisms used to spin superconductive disks.
http://www.angelfire.com/scifi2/zpt/scitist.html Historic picture. Pick the link to view a NASA scientist showing one of the test superconductive disks. One of the problems has been that the disks shatter when spun at high velocities. The ring around the disk is part of the press used to make the disk.
http://www.angelfire.com/scifi2/zpt/spinner.html Historic picture. Pick the link to view another of the NASA machines designed to spin superconductive disks.
Scientists around the world are following up on Dr. Podkletnov’s discovery.5The team lead by Dr. Ning Li 6of the University of Alabama is currently replicatating the experiment. NASA Marshall is also experimenting with the technology. This author expects the results of this work to be slow in coming and revolutionary in scope.
NASA’S CONCLUSIONS :
Nasa has completed its gravitational experiments. NASA applied a magnetic field to a high temperature superconductor and searched for a gravitational anomaly. No anomaly was found. NASA did not rotate or apply a radio frequency field to the superconductor. NASA did not follow Podkletnov’s suggestions. The author has obtained a copy of Ning Li’s unpublished paper, “Gravitomagnetic fields arising from the lattice ion rotations of superconductors.” Ning’s method does not require rotation or the application of a radio frequency field. Li may have led NASA down the wrong path. Just as a spinning charge generates an electromagnetic field, a rotating mass generates a gravitomagnetic field. The gravitational field is 1039 weaker than the electromagentic field. To get an idea of how weak the gravitomagnetic field is, envision the mass of the earth rotating. The gravitomagnetic field produced by the rotation of the entire mass of the earth is just barely detectable using the most sensitive satellite experiments. No mechanical machine on earth could ever spin fast enough to generate a useable gravitomagnetic field. Ning Li suggested that nucleons could be spun up by a factor of 1045. This author does not appreciate her mechanism for adding spin to the nucleus. As with the electron each level of spin is accompanied by a higher level of energy. It would be impossible to maintain energy levels that are a factor of 1045 above the ground state. The energy would be released long before this level of spin was obtained through the the decay of the state and the emission of a photon. Gravity is normally a very weak force. There is one instance, however, when all of the fields, including gravity, strongly interact. That instance is during the quantum transition. Lot Brantly asked Znidarsic, “What purpose does the radio frequency field serve.” If Brantly or Znidarsic had known the answer NASA may have followed a different path and mankind would have gravitomagnetic propulsion. Lot’s question proved to be a vital clue. Znidarsic now knows that the quantum transition is proceeds at a dimensional frequency of one megahertz-meter. This understanding will be applied in later chapters to show how to build a gravitomagnetic propulsion system.
http://www.angelfire.com/scifi2/zpt/movies/forcegr.AVI The relationship between force, gravity, and the gravitomagnetic field has been known for 100 years. This author was the first to place force in a model of matter. This author’s work is fundamental to the development of zero point levitational technologies. Published November 1998, INFINITE ENERGY, Volume 4, Issue 22.
The Legend of air force base Area-51
Stories abound about the top secret air force base Area-51. It has been said that flying saucers, aliens, and Roswell crash debris are located there. Physist Bob Lazar claims to have seen captured alien spacecraft at the base. Lasar claims that spacecraft fly with the help of Element-X. This author questions this claim. What could Element-X be? All of the stable elements have been identified. Unknown elements heavier that uranium have very short half lives. The laws of physics are known well enough to rule out the existence of reasonably stable unknown elements. Lasar’s claim does not ring true.
Air Force consultant Edgar Fouche claims that Aurora program has developed a craft known as the TR-3B. Picture of the TR-3B courtesy of Edgar Fouche. 7Fouche states,. “Sandia and Livermore laboratories developed the reverse engineered MFD technology. The plasma, mercury based, is pressurized at 250,000 atmospheres at a temperature of 150 degrees Kelvin and accelerated to 50,000 rpm to create a super-conductive plasma with the resulting gravity disruption.” 7This author has shown that the rotation of a superconductor (a bose condensate) will induce a gravitomagnetic field. Indeed the Advanced Concepts Group at NASA Marshall is currently experimenting with this idea. Could Fouche’s rotating plasma be a Bose condensate? Plasmas tends to condense into liquids and solids under high pressure and low temperature. What keeps the TR-3B’s plasma from condensing? This author has many more questions than answers, however, Fouche’s claim has some technical basis and just could be true.
# CONCLUSION :
Promising antigraviational technologies appear to have been discovered. It appears that small engines, producing several newtons of thrust, will soon be built. More powerful engines, capable of lifting off from earth, will require extensive development. These engines do not expel mass. They push off of distant objects. They will be efficient. Their only requirement is energy. Someday soon man will begin to colonize the universe. He will do this in spaceships that are propelled by gravtomagnetic engines. These engines will be powered by “zero point” cold fusion technology. This author is looking forward to a bright new future. In this future limitless energy will be available from new energy machines and the galaxy will be traversed in spaceships propelled by gravitomagnetic engines.
# NOTES :
The Latest from NASA: http://www.imglmb1.com/tribune/0207/tld_att_latimes.html
– 1. ” The Oscillatory Chamber ” Jan , ISBN 0-9597698-2-X, 50 pages, 1984 New Zealand
– 2. ” Flyiing Saucers Uncensured ” Harold T. Wilkins, Citadel Press, 1955, Page 19
– 3. Physical Review Letters December 18, 1989
– 4. The Sunday Telegraph may be directly accessed on the Internet at http:// www.telegraph.co.uk/et Then search for Podkletnov
– 5. Popular Mechanics, December 1997, page 44
– 6. ” Gravitatioanl effects on the magnetic attenuation of superconductors ” Ning Li and D. G. Torr, Physical Review B, Vol 46, # 9 Sept. 1992
– ” Effects of a gravitomagnetic field on pure superconductors ” N. Li and D.G. Torr, Physical Review D, vol 43 # 2 January 1991
– Li,N. Noever, D.A., Koczor, R. Robertson, T, Brantley, W, ” Static test for a gravitational force coupled to type II YBCO superconductors,” Physica C 281 (1997) 260-267.
– Noever, D., Koczor, R. ” Superconductor-mediated Modification of gravity? AC Motor Experiments with Bulk YBCO Disks in Rotating Magnetic Fields,” AIAA 98-3139, Proceedings, 1998 AIAA/AASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference, Cleveland, OH July 13-15, 1998.
– Noever, D., Koczor, R. ” Test Status for Proposed Coupling of A Gravitational Force to Extreme Type II YBCO Ceramic Superconductors ” NASA/CP-1999-208694, NASA Breakthrough Propulsion Physics Workshop Proceedings, August 12-14, 1997, Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, OH.
– David Noever, Neural Net Method for HTS Combinatorial Optimization Bi:Cu:Sr:Ca Ratio, presentation at the 3rd European Conference on Applied Superconductivity 7-9 July 1997
– David Noever and Ron Koczor, Radio-frequency illuminated superconductive disks: Reverse Josephson effects and implications for precise measuring of proposed gravity effects, NASA JPL-Ninth Advanced Space Propulsion Research Workshop and Conference, Pasadena, CA March 11-13, 1998
– D. Noever and C. Bremner, Large-Scale Sakharov Condition, 35th AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference, Los Angeles, CA, 20-23 June, 1999
– R. Koczor, Noever, D, Fabrication of large YBCO superconducting disks, Physica C: Superconductivity, (submitted, 1999)
– Dr. Harrald Reiss , ” Weight Anomalies Observed During the Cool-Down of High Temperature Superconductors “, Vol 16, No. 2 June 2002
– 7. ” Alien Rapture “, Edgar Fouche, Box 760094, San Antionio TX, 78245, Edgar Fouche appeared on the TLC program “Alien Invasion” on March 5, 1999 ; Reference provided as required in exchange for this use of the TR-3B picture.
– 8. “Scientific American”, Aug. 2004, Pg. 51 ; Tethers in Space , 50 KM long tethers may produce some thrust.
# Appendix ; THE MATHEMATICS :
F = The gravitomagnetic field in newtons/ (kg/sec) ; Mearth = Mass of the Earth = 5.98 x 1024 kg; re = The gravitational radius of the earth = 5 x 106 meters ; R = Radius of the spinning disc or gyroscope = .2 meters
Note: the gravitomagnetic field is induced by the movement of a collimated energy field. Note R & re also define the length of the collimated energy field. Only the kinetic energy of the spinning earth and gyroscope are colliminated.
m = Mass of spinning disc or gyroscope = 700 grams
THE GYROSCOPE CALCULATION
v = velocity at the edge of the gyroscope = 2p (f) (R) ; v = 2p (216rev/sec)(.2 meters) ; v = 271 meters/second
For the sake of analysis this velocity will be split evenly between the earth and the spinning gyroscope.
v = v / 2 = 135 meters/second
The gravitomagnetic field “F” is similar to the electro-magnetic field in that it is induced by motion. It is induced by the movement of mass “dm/dt” not charge “dq/dt”. The gravitomagnetic is very weak and involves the very large constants “G” and c2. The gravitomagnetic field “F” is given by:F = (G/c2) dm/dt
F = (G/c2r) Mv
Fearth = (6.67 x 10-11) / [(9 x 1016)(3 x 106)](5.98 x 1024)(135)
The field density B is given in units of 1/meters. B = F /meter
Bearth = 2 x 10-7 newtons/(kg-meter/sec)
The electro-magnetic field tends to repel like charges moving in opposite directions. Likewise the gravitomagnetic field tends to repel masses moving in opposite directions. The gravitomagnetic effect is ordinarily to weak to be detected.
Force on gyroscope = Bearth Mv ; Force on gyroscope = (2 x 10-7)(.7KG)(135m/s) ; Force on gyroscope = 2 x 10-5 newtons
Converting newtons to grams. Weight loss = (100 grams/newton) (2 x 10-5newtons) ; Weight loss = 2 milligrams
The results of the gyroscope experiment are consistent with those expected from the interaction of the gravitomagnetic field.
THE SUPERCONDUCTIVE DISC CALCULATIONS
In the gyroscope experiment, the kinetic rotational kinetic energy of the gyroscope is collimated produced the effect. The mass energy of a superconductor is collimated. The mass energy of a rotating superconductor is much larger than its kinetic energy. The antigravitational effect will therefore be much larger. For a disc with a radius of .2 meters rotatating at 2 revolutions per second the calculation is:
For the sake of analysis this velocity will be split evenly between the earth and the spinning disc.
v = velocity at the edge of the disc = 2p (f) (R) ; v = 2p(.2)(2rev/sec) = 2.51 meters/second
The induced gravitomagnetic field is given by:F = (G/c2r) Mv
Fearth = (6.67 x 10-11)/[(9 x 1016)(3 x 106)](5.98 x 1024)(1.25 m/sec) ; Fearth = 1.8 x 10-9 newtons/(kg-meter/sec)
B = F /meter
Force on disc = Bearth Mv
Due to the collimation of the mass energy of a superconductor momentum “P” is substituted for “Mv”. The kinetic contribution to “P” is small and was not included with the calculation. As before the mass of the disc is .7kg.
Force on disc = Bearth P ; Force on disc = Bearth E/c ; Force on disc = Bearth (Mc2)/c ; Force on disc = ( 1.8 x 10-9) (.7kg) (3 x 108) ; Force on disc = .37 newtons
Converting newtons to grams. Weight loss = (100 grams/newton) (.37 newtons) = 37 grams
% weight change = (37 grams/ 700 grams)(100%) = 5.4 %
The weight loss is consistent with the weight loss observed in spinning disks. This consistency indicates that the gravitational effects are the result of an induced gravitomagnetic field.
// end of Chapter 3 ………………………………………………………………..