ORIGINE of’RUNNING CARS WITH WATER’ & the DISCOVERY ofBROWN’S GAS : (Also called Browns Gas, Brown Gas, Rhodes-Gas, Green Gas, HHOS, Hydroxy, Oxy-Hydrogen, Green Gas, Di-hydroxy, Water Gas)
## 1769, Joseph CUGNOT, France, the first auto-motive / auto-mobile of our civilization
Running from water vapor : called ‘The Fardier’ : http://www.vintageweb.net/ccpa/francais.htm
It has a twin-cylinder single-action steam engine and is the oldest surviving self-propelled road vehicle in the world. Full details, in French : http://pboursin.club.fr/cugnot.htm
## 1832,Michael Faraday reported that the quantity of elements separated by passing an electrical current through a molten or dissolved saltwas proportional to the quantity of electric charge passed through the circuit. This became the basis of the first law of electrolysis, from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Faraday’s_law_of_electrolysis .
## 1932, Charles H. Garrett, USA, the first to run a Internal Combustion Engine car with water, using water electrolysis, and obtaining a patent, 70 years ago :United States Patent, 2,006,676, Electrolytic Carburetor, Texas, 1932, Serial No. 620,364.http://www.keelynet.com/energy/garrett.htm
‘Dad’ Pat Garrett the most famous Afro-American inventor of that time, created the actual Automatic Traffic Light, and also the ‘Gas Mask’ for Fire Fighters. A genius that was inventing with his son.
In 1920 he set up WRR in Dallas, the world’s first municipal radio station. .. He was the first man to build a radio in his car, and he developed radio transmission from the car for police use.
Eugene P. Aldredge recalled the Garretts: “I had rented a small office on the seventh floor of the Allen building in downtown Dallas for my letter service, and one of my early customers was the eighteenth floor National Electric Signal Co. owned by Dad Garrett and son C.H..”I was informed that the two were experimenting with an automobile that used water for fuel, that they carried on their experiments in a workshop adjacent to their office on the top floor, and that two separate explosions (from dangerous hydrogen) had nearly blown a hole in the roof of the building…Neither was hurt.”
On September 8, 1935, The Dallas Morning News first announced that the water-fuel concept worked…
# – USP 2,006,676, Electrolytic Carburetor, July 2, 1935 ~ Cl. 204-5, Charles H. Garrett, http://www.brownsgas.com/page/page/3414335.htm
This invention relates to carburetors and it has particular reference to an electrolytic carburetor by means of which water may be broken up into its hydrogen and oxygen constituents and the gases so formed suitably mixed with air.
The principal object of the invention is to provide in a device of the character described, a mechanism by means of which water may be readily decomposed into its constituents, and the constituents intimately mixed with each other and with air.
Another object of the invention is to provide means whereby the electrolyte level in the carburetor may be maintained at a more or less constant level regardless of fluctuations in fluid pressure at the fluid inlet of the carburetor.
Another object of the invention is to provide means whereby the relative amount of air mixed with the hydrogen and oxygen may be regulated as desired.
Still another object of the invention is the provision of means to prevent loss of hydrogen and oxygen gases during periods in which these gases are not being drawn from the carburetor.
Still another object of the invention is the provision of means whereby the hydrogen and oxygen resulting from electrolysis may be formed in separate compartments, and a further object of the invention is the provision of means to periodically reverse the direction of current flow and thereby alternate the evolution of the gases in the separate compartments, to be later intermingled.
With the foregoing objects as paramount, the invention has particular reference to its salient features of construction and arrangement of parts, taken in connection with the accompanying drawings, wherein: –
Figure 1 is a view in vertical section of one form of carburetor: see picture above.
Figure 4 is a wiring diagram for the modified form of carburetor shown in Figure 2:
… Water under pressure is forced into the carburetor through an opening 5 which communicates with the float chamber 2 through the medium of the sediment chamber 6 and the needle valve orifice 7, which is closed by a needle valve 8 when the device is not in operation. A float 9 surrounds the needle valve 8 and is free to move vertically relative thereto. Depending from the cover 10 to the float chamber 2 are two ears 11, located at spaced intervals on opposite sides of the needle valve 8. The members 12 are pivoted to the ears 11, as shown. The weighted outer ends of the members 12 rest on top of the float 9, and their inner ends are received in an annular groove in the collar 13 which is rigidly attached to the needle valve 8.
The operation of the device is as follows :
The chambers 2 and 4 are first filled to the level ‘a’ with a solution of weak sulphuric acid or other electrolyte not changed by the passage of current therethrough, and the opening 5 is connected to a tank of water, not shown.
The wire 16 is next connected to the positive pole of a storage battery or other source of direct current and the wire 20 to the negative pole. Since the solution within the carburetor is a conductor of electricity, current will flow therethrough and hydrogen will be given off from the negative or cathode plates 18 and oxygen from the positive or anode plates 14.
… When it is desired to reduce the flow of hydrogen and oxygen from the plates 18 and 14, the current flowing through the device is reduced, and when the current is interrupted the flow ceases. When the butterfly valve 23 is moved to closed position, the check valve 26 is automatically closed by the spring 28. Any excess given off during these operations is stored in the space above the fluid where it is ready for subsequent use.
Water is converted into its gaseous constituents by the device herein described, but the dilute sulphuric acid or other suitable electrolyte in the carburetor remains unchanged, since it is not destroyed by electrolysis, and the parts in contact therewith are made of bakelite and lead or other material not attacked by the electrolyte.
… A pipe 51 bent as shown in Figure 2 passes downwardly through the housing of the carburetor and has a series of spaced apertures ‘a’ in its horizontal portion beneath the plates 36 and 38. An upwardly opening check valve 53 is in control of the air inlet 54. When a partial vacuum exists in the chamber 33, air is drawn in through the opening 54 and subsequently passes upwardly through the apertures ‘a’. This air tends to remove any bubbles of gas collecting on the plates 36 and 38 and also tends to cool the electrolyte. The check valve 53 automatically closes when a gas pressure exists within the carburetor and thereby prevents the electrolyte from being forced out of the opening 54.
In order to provide for alternate evolution of the gases from the plates 36 and 38, a pole changer 41, shown in Figure 3 is provided, which is actuated periodically by the motor 42 which drives the worm 43 and the gear 44 and causes oscillations of the member 45 which is connected by a spring 46 to the arm 47, thereby causing the pole changer to snap from one position to the other.
In operation, the carburetor shown in Figure 2 is connected as shown in the wiring diagram of Figure 4. A storage battery 48 or other suitable source of direct current is connected to a variable rheostat 49, switch 50, pole changer 41 and to the carburetor as shown. Thus the rate of evolution of the gases can be controlled by the setting of the rheostat 49 and the desired alternate evolution of the gases in the compartments of the carburetor is accomplished by means of the periodically operated pole changer 41.
## 1962, William Rhodes (USA): http://www.brownsgas.com/easysubpage0019.html
First patent 3,262,872 of 26 July 1966, second patent 3,310,483, 1967 titled, “MULTICELL OXYHYDROGEN GENERATOR”, See also http://www.keelynet.com/energy/oxyhyd1.html
Professor Dr. William A. Rhodes , first known inventor to patent an electrolyzer that produced the simple ‘single-ducted’ gas we now call Brown’s Gas . In the mid 1960’s Mr. Rhodes formed a company (Henes Corp.) with partners who took control of the operation and cut him out. This was a bad mistake, because they did not yet have Mr. Rhodes most efficient design. Henes Corp. eventually failed, went through several hands and was eventually acquired by Dennis McMurray. The company, now named Arizona Hydrogen , is doing well in Phoenix Arizona USA .http://www.azhydrogen.com
Extracts from Professor Dr. William A. Rhodes paper :
COMMON DUCT ATOMIC ELECTROLYTIC OXYHYDROGEN Parameters & Variables by William A. Rhodes, Physicist
“Of all elements, hydrogen and oxygen should hold no secrets. Yet, in this example they do and have been troublesome.”
http://www.keelynet.com/energy/oxyhyd2.htm and http://www.pureenergysystems.com/academy/papers/Common_Duct_Electrolytic_OxyHydrogen/
This concept was discovered in 1961 by request from a manufacturer for a new and novel means for producing torch flame temperatures beyond those of that era. Such system was conceived and developed involving electrolytic production of mixed hydrogen and oxygen. Prior to that time, literature on the subject focused exclusively on separation of such gas and conducting them out of the electrolyzer for tank storage.
The first patent (Apparatus For The Electrolytic Production of Hydrogen And Oxygen For The Safe Consumption patent # 3,262,872 issued July 26, 1966.) dealt with intermixing the gases in an electrolyzer, issuing through a common duct for instant use in a torch. 9 claims in the patent read on; “an outlet for said generator to conduct a mixture of hydrogen and oxygen gases therefrom,” as opposed to other electrolyzers using separate ducts for each gas.
Immediately after launching the Henes venture, I began research on a large electrolyzer patented in March 1967 under the title, MULTICELL OXYHYDROGEN GENERATOR (U.S Patent 3,310,483). It contained 60 iron plates, nickel plated on the oxygen generating side and iron on the hydrogen side. This patent claims use of loosely fitting grooves for holding the plates in tank 8″x8″x16″x3/4″ Plexiglas. I previously discovered that current could not bypass such plates loosely fitting in grooves of proper design. The torch flame from that unit was 20 inches long, melting everything into blue-white puddles, including firebrick, ceramics and carbon (in argon atmosphere).
Flame tests in an argon atmosphere directed on several layers of carbon fiber fabric with its micron size filaments (Used on the stealth fighter & bomber.) melted carbon filaments into brilliant globules. This means carbon’s melting temperature 3550C/6422F is exceeded, but its boiling point 4827C/8720F is not attained. Past that point no reference exists.
The only purpose of KOH is to create the lowest possible resistance eg, highest electrical conductivity. Being slowly depleted by mist generated during electrolysis, specific gravity must occasionally be corrected by addition of KOH.
It is noted that any sharp metallic whisker in the storage atmosphere could cause an explosion, similar to the dangers of storing high percentage hydrogen peroxide, where the entire contents can burst into high pressure steam with disastrous results, just because somewhere in the interior someone forgot to round off a sharp edge. On the other hand, these mixed gases were ignited repeatedly in a 4 liter container of 16 gauge iron with flat ends and sparkplug. The only evidence of ignition was a sharp click, with no damage to the vessel.
These tests allowed us to design electrolyzer tanks of materials and thicknesses that could contain flashbacks. Viewing the permanent Plexiglas multicell in operation, electrolyte foam rises upward, but at maximum elevation allows sufficient gas space above. Therefore no purpose is served with designs containing more gas than necessary for conduction out of the reservoir. Extrapolation of chart curves indicate a possible diesel type explosion as pressure approaches 400 psi. However, this is not conclusive. Generation of such single ducted gases appears to be an event not found in nature, unless lightening produces them.
## 1974, Ilya Velbov, Bulgaria, called Yull Brown in Australia (1922-1998): http://www.brownsgas.com/easysubpage0044.html
Patent #4,014,777 was issued 29 March 1977. Ten years after William Rhodes patents, filed a patent on his design of a Brown’s Gas electrolyzer and spent the rest of his life trying to make Brown’s Gas a commercial success. He spent about 30 million dollars and nearly 30 years in this endeavor. Due to his lifelong effort, he is posthumously honored by continuing to call the gas Brown’s Gas . Several companies were started, both in cooperation and in competition with Yull Brown.
In 1991Kim, Sang Nam from Korea visited Yull Brown’s laboratory in suburbs of Sydney.This was the start of Brown’s cooperation with B.E.S.T. KOREA (of Brown Gas.com). They succeeded in innovative technology development regarding Brown’s Gas (They call it Brown Gas.). Today B.E.S.T. Korea is one of world’s largest manufacturers of Brown’s Gas machines.
Yull Brown has converted the engine of his car to run on the mix. Atmospheric pressure forces the pistons down into the cylinders to occupy the near-vacuum caused by the implosion of the gas.
Before the 70’s, the South Australias Sundays of Adélaïde newspaper plublished an article saying that kits to transform your car to the Brown’s technology will cost around 300 to 400 AD, and a car will run a full year with 10 gallons of water only… Other Australian newspapers made articles, at that time, about the Brown’s car that was running on water only. A research in the local archives could be very interresting !
December 30, 1976, The Australian, only nationwide newspaper, made it frontpage with the title ” An hero in the suburban “. Andrew Fowler, the reporter, said that M. Brown should be called ” The man who saved the World”.
Six months later, Suzy Jarratt in the Daily Telegraph annonced : ” Bang, an other theory, thanks to M. Brown “.
And a few other magazines sent their reporters to Yull’s garage …
For full details about Brown gas http://www.rexresearch.com/hyfuel/ybrown/4014777.htm
current theory of Brown’s Gas http://www.eagle-research.com/browngas/whatisbg/whatis.html
see also http://www.watertorch.com/whatis/whatis1.html
history of Brown gas http://www.watertorch.com/bghistory/hisbg1.htm
Quartz melting http://www.pureenergysystems.com/lab/BrownsGas/QuartzMelting/040818_Cullen.htm
To buy brown gas book http://www.brownsgas.com/easysubpage0042.html
in french :http://quanthomme.free.fr/carburant/GazBrown.htm
in italiano http://www.edicolaweb.net/brown06.htm
Brown’s Gas International Corp., Densmore Avenue, Encino, CA, 91436 USA, Fax (818) 990-4873
## Here is a synopsis of a sampling of the research that has been done:http://www.chechfi.ca/tehisyst.htm
– In 1974 John Houseman and D.J/Cerini of the Jet Propulsion Lab, California Institute of Technology produced a report for the Society of Automotive Engineers entitled “On-Board Hydrogen Generator for a Partial Hydrogen Injection Internal Combustion Engine”.
– In 1974 F.W. Hoehn and M.W. Dowy of the Jet Propulsion Lab, prepared a report for the 9th Inter society Energy Conversion Engineering Conference, entitled “Feasibility Demonstration of a Road Vehicle Fueled with Hydrogen Enriched Gasoline.”
– In the eighties George Vosper P. Eng., ex-professor of Dynamics and Canadian inventor, patented a device to transform internal combustion engines to run on hydrogen. He affirms: “A small amount of hydrogen added to the air intake of a gasoline engine would enhance the flame velocity and thus permit the engine to operate with leaner air to gasoline mixture than otherwise possible. The result, far less pollution with more power and better mileage.”
-In 1995, Wagner, Jamal and Wyszynski, at the Birmingham University of Engineering, Mechanical and Manufacturing, demonstrated the advantages of “Fractional addition of hydrogen to internal combustion engines by exhaust gas fuel reforming.” The process yielded benefits in improved combustion stability and reduced nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbon emissions.
– Roy Mac Alister, PE of the American Hydrogen Association states the “Use of mixtures of hydrogen in small quantities and conventional fuels offers significant reductions in exhaust emissions” Relatively small amounts of hydrogen can dramatically increase horsepower and reduce exhaust emissions.”
– At the HYPOTHESIS Conference, University of Cassino, Italy, 1995, scientists from the University of Birmingham, UK, presented a study about hydrogen as a fraction of the fuel “Hydrogen, when used as a fractional additive at extreme lean engine operation, yields benefits in improved combustion stability and reduced nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbon emissions.”
– In 1997, scientists representing the Department of Energy Engineering, Zhejiang University, China, presented a mathematical model for the process of formation and restraint of toxic emissions in hydrogen-gasoline mixture fueled engines. Using the theory of chemical dynamics of combustion, the group elaborated an explanation of the mechanism of forming toxic emissions in spark ignition engines. The results of their experimental investigation conclude that because of the characteristics of hydrogen, the mixture can rapidly burn in hydrogen-gasoline mixture fueled engines, thus toxic emissions are restrained
– California Environmental Engineering (CEE) has tested this technology and found reduction on all exhaust emissions. They subsequently stated: “CEE feels that the result of this test verifies that this technology is a viable source for reducing emissions and fuel consumption on large diesel engines.”
– The American Hydrogen Association Test Lab tested this technology and proved that: “Emissions test results indicate that a decrease of toxic emissions was realized.” Again, zero emissions were observed on CO.
– Northern Alberta Institute of Technology. Vehicle subjected to dynamometer loading in controlled conditions showed drastic reduction of emissions and improved horsepower.
– Corrections Canada tested several systems and concluded, “The hydrogen system is a valuable tool in helping Corrections Canada meet the overall Green Plan by: reducing vehicle emissions down to an acceptable level and meeting the stringent emissions standard set out by California and British Columbia; reducing the amount of fuel consumed by increased mileage.” For their research they granted the C.S.C. Environmental Award.
– We also conducted extensive testing in our facility in order to prove reliability (MTBF, life expectancy, etc.) and determine safety and performance of the components and the entire system. The results of these tests were able to confirm the claims made about this technology: the emissions will be reduced, the horsepower will increase and the fuel consumption will be reduced.
## 1976, M. Stephen HORVATH, Hong Kong, USP 3,980,053, Fuel supply apparatus for internal combustion engines
U.S. Patent Documents: – 1262034, 1918, Frazer – 1380183, 1921, Boisen – 1905627, 1933, Holland – 2365330, 1944, Carmichael – 2496623, 1950, Fragale – 3330755, 1967, Mahany – 3648668, 1972, Pacheco – 3755128, 1973, Herwig
## 1978, M. Stephen HORVATH, Hong Kong, USP 4,107,008, Electrolysis method for producing hydrogen and oxygen
U.S. Patent Documents: – 2016442, 1935, Kilgus – 3207684, 1965, Dotts – 3719583, 1973, Ustick
# What I claim is:
1. A method of decomposition of water to produce hydrogen and oxygen comprising the steps of placing an electrically conductive aqueous solution in a vessel in contact with a pair of separated electrodes, causing electric current to flow between said electrodes while simultaneously irradiating the aqueous solution with electromagnetic radiation of wave length less than 10.sup.-10 meters and a stream of neutrons, and collecting hydrogen and oxygen which accumulates at the electrodes as highly ionised gases in which the hydrogen contains a higher proportion of deutrons than in naturally occurring hydrogen.
2. A method as claimed in claim 1 wherein said electrodes are cylindrically arranged about a common centre line and wherein the electromagnetic radiation and said stream of neutrons are generated in a radiation generator disposed within the inner electrode and radiate outwardly through the inner electrode into said aqueous solution.
IT IS KNOWN THAT COMPOUNDS, INCLUDING ELECTROLYTES SUCH AS WATER, CAN BE DECOMPOSED INTO THEIR CONSTITUENT ELEMENTS BY IRRADIATION WITH SHORT WAVE ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION. Such radiation induced dissociation or decomposition may be termed “radiolysis”. For example, a paper by Dr. Akibumi Danno entitled “Producing Hydrogen with Nuclear Energy” published in the “Chemical Economy and Engineering Review” of June, 1974 describes in some detail the radiolysis of water and a number of hydrocarbons with an explanation of the elementary reactions involved in such radiolysis. Briefly, it is found that irradiation with short wave x-rays or gamma rays, i.e. electromagnetic radiation of wave length less than 10.sup.-10 meters, results in direct decomposition of the compounds concerned. For example, if water is irradiated with gamma radiation the water will be dissociated into hydrogen and oxygen. Danno proposes the use of a nuclear reactor as a source of radiation on a massive scale but concludes that water radiolysis is not a very efficient method of producing hydrogen and he proposes instead a process involving a radiolysis of carbon dioxide to produce carbon monoxide and oxygen and a subsequent conversion of the carbon monoxide to hydrogen gas by the conventional water/gas conversion process.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
The present invention provides for an electrolysis process in which radiolysis is also present. It is found that with the combination of electrolysis and radiolysis the yield of decomposition products can be greater than that achieved by either a simple electrolysis process or simple radiolysis. The yield rate can be very much improved in the combined electrolysis and radiolysis process by providing a magnetic field in the electrolytic conductor which provides preferred paths for the high speed photons of the short wave electromagnetic radiation and also for the ions in the electrolytic conductor thereby increasing the possibility for collision between the electrons and the ions with a subsequent improved radiolysis yield.
In one method according to the invention, pulses of high voltage electrical energy are applied between the anode and cathode of an electrolytic cell in such a manner as to generate the necessary short wave length radiation for radiolysis. In another method according to the invention pulses of high voltage electrical energy are discharged in one or more short wave length radiation generators separate from the anode and cathode but disposed such that the electrolytic conductor within the cell is irradiated by the short wave radiation produced thereby. The high voltage pulses of electrical energy can be generated by a quite modest direct current input supplied and the methods according to the invention will produce a greatly increased yield of decomposition products over that which could be achieved by passing the supply current through the electrolytic conductor.
The total electrical energy input to the cell during the test period was therefore 1,334,423 watt seconds or 0.371 kilowatt hours.
During the test seventy milliliters of water was converted to hydrogen and oxygen gas. This is equal to 3.89 moles of water and, since each mole of water produces 1 mole of hydrogen and 1/2 mole of oxygen, the weight of hydrogen produced during the test period was 3.89 .times. 2 = 7.78 grams or 0.017 pounds. Thus, the rate of electrical consumption of the cell was 21.63 kilowatt hours per pound of hydrogen produced.
One common parameter used for expressing the efficiency of an electrolytic cell is the total electrical input in kilowatt hours required to produce 1,000 standard cubic feet of hydrogen and a figure of 79 kilowatt hours per 1000 S.C.F. is regarded as 100% efficiency. The test results indicate that the illustrated apparatus requires 121 kilowatt hours per 1,000 S.C.F. and on this basis its efficiency is 65.53%.
Another basis for measuring the performance of electrolytic cells is to calculate the thermal efficiency defined as ##EQU1## The higher heating value of hydrogen is defined as 286 kjoules per mole. Therefore, the thermal efficiency demonstrated in the test was: ##EQU2##
The above results compare very favourably with the performance of the most efficient electrolysers which are at present commercially available. A comparison with known electrolysers is set out in table B. It will be seen that the only known electrolyser which operates at the same efficiency levels is one produced by Life Systems Inc. However, this operates at very high pressure and high temperature and is not available commercially. Compared with the existing systems the present apparatus operates at very low pressure and temperature and has a high output for its size. It is also relatively cheap to produce.
## Also about RADIOLYSIS:
Translation from http://www.ovni.ch/~kouros/voiture.htm by C.P. Kouropoulos.
The most efficient system to splitt the bonds in the water molecule was discovered by Marie CURIE in 1910 and called Radiolysis. She explain that the sealed glass bulbs containing Radium Salts always explosed after a while under the pressure created by the decomposition of water.
This system has been used by many inventors since that time, and recently rediscovered by Bruce PERREAULT. http://www.nuenergy.org/radiolysis.htm
During the radioactive dissolution in water, 95% of the ionization energy is directly converted in Hydrogen and Oxygen molecules that won’t recombined after. This is valuable for any ionized ray of high energy; alpha, beta or gamma coming from a nuclear reaction.
See the patent of Joseph Papp (his Noble Gasses Motor), 1968 in pdf http://ionvalve.com/pdf/PAP3680431.pdf
## 1978, Archie Blue, New Zealand, patent 4,124,463, now in the public domain.
It is a carburetor that operate by drawing the intake air of an IC engine through an electrolyzer composed of horizontal plates with holes in them. There is a compressed air source fed to the input so that the output will be at standard atmospheric pressure. This electrolyzer is operated from a heavy duty alternator driven by the IC engine.
When the engine has been sufficiently warmed up the petrol is turned off and the electrolyzer powered up. Spark must not be before TDC.
Several electrolyzersare needed. Three is the commonly used number. This allows more water vapour to be added to the gas and aids in power efficiency as the explosion is cooled by changing the water droplets to super heated steam. The steam gives a long steady power push to the piston. It is the compression stroke that converts the moisture in the mix to water droplets.
# Full transcription of the patent, by MDG:
# Electrolytic Cell, USP 4,124,463, Nov. 7, 1978, Archie H. Blue, Christchurch, New Zealand
# Abstract: In the electrolytic production of hydrogen and oxygen, air is pumped through the cell while the electrolysis is in progress so as to obtain a mixture of air with the electrolytically produced hydrogen and oxygen.
# Background and Brief Description of the Invention: This invention relates to the production of gases which can be utilized primarily but not necessarily as a fuel.
To electrically decompose water it is necessary to pass direct current between a pair of electrodes which are immersed in a suitable electrolyte. It is normal in such electrolysis to place some form of gas barrier between the two electrodes in order to prevent the gases evolved during the electrolysis from forming an explosive mixture. However provided suitable precautions are taken it has been found that the gases can be allowed to mix and can be fed into a storage tank for subsequent use. Because the gases when mixed form an explosive mixture, it is possible for the mixture to be utilized for instance as a fuel for an internal combustion engine. In such circumstances it is desirable that the gases should also be mixed with a certain proportion of air in order to control the explosive force which results when the gases are ignited.
One of the difficulties encountered with electrolysis is that bubbles of gas are liable to remain on the electrodes during the electrolysis thus effectively limiting the area of electrode which is in contact with the electrolyte and preventing optimum current flow between the electrodes. Because in accordance with the present invention it is desirable that the gases evolved during the electrolysis be mixed with air, then it is possible for air to be passed through the cell while the electrolysis is in progress. The passage of air through the cell can be directed past the electrodes so as to entrain in the passage of air any bubbles of gas remaining on the electrodes.
Accordingly the invention comprises an electrolytic cell including a gas tight casing, a plurality of electrodes adapted to be supported on a central post within the cell in a spaced apart relationship and to be electrically insulated from each other, each alternative electrode being adapted to be connected to a positive direct current source or a negative direct current source respectively and wherein the central post is in the form of a tube, one end of which is extended out of the cell and is adapted to be connected to a source of air under pressure, with the other end of the central post terminating in an air outlet below the said electrodes, the said cell including a gas outlet to exhaust air forced into the cell through the central post and to exhaust the electrolitically produced gases mixed with the said air.
# Detailed Description of the Invention: Various forms of the invention will now be described with the aid of the accompanying drawings wherein:
Fig.1 is a diagrammatic elevational view partly in section of one form of the invention,
Fig.2 is a diagrammatic elevational view partly in section of a modified form of the invention,
Fig.3 is a section along the line III-III of Fig.2
The cell as shown in Fig.1 comprises a gas-tight casing 11 which is formed from a non-coorodible material such as plastics material as is known in the art. A plurality of cathodes 11 and a plurality of anodes 12 are supported within the cell by means of an electrically insulating central post 13, with the cathodes and anodes being spaced apart by means of insulating spacers 14. The anodes 12 are all connected in parallel to a positive terminal post 15 while the cathodes are all connected in parallel to the negative terminal post 16, these connections being indicated in dotted lines in the drawings. The cathodes and the anodes are preferably in the form of disc like plates of a suitable metal which is consistent with the composition of the electrolyte utilized so as to ensure a satisfactory life to the cell. The plates may be shaped to conform with the shape of the walls of the cell which may be circular in cross section as indicated or any other desired shape.
The central post 13 is preferably in the form of a tube which extends out of the cell as at 13a. The lower end 18 of the tube is open so that air can be pumped into the cell through the central post 13 and enter the cell via the lower end 18 where it will pass up through the electrolyte. This will keep the electrolyte constantly in motion and thereby assist in the rapid removal from the electrodes of any gases that might be adhering thereto.
In the modification shown in Fig.2 and 3, the electrodes are each provided with holes 17 and in such a case the central post 13 is preferably formed with at least one air hole 19 adjacent the lower end 18 thereof. A deflector plate 20 is also supported by the central post 13, this plate being dish shaped so as to deflect air issuing out of the air hole 19 up through the holes 17 in the electrodes. Such action further assists in dislodging any bubbles of gas clinging to the electrodes.
The cell also includes a gas outlet 21 so that the air which enters the cell together with the gases produced by the electrolysis can be exhausted out of the cell into a suitable storage tank (not shown in the drawings). If desired such storage tank can be arranged to accept the gases under pressure and for this purpose the air pumped into the cell will be pumped in under the required pressure. A gas drier (not shown in the drawings) can also be interposed between the gas outlet 21 and the storage tank.
Although the electrolysis will naturally produce considerable heat, nevertheless it can be found advantageous to install a heater in the cell, preferably in the bottom of the cell, to assist and facilitate the warming up of the electrolyte so that the cell reaches its most efficient operating conditions as quickly as possible.
Preferably also, current limiting means as is known in the art are employed so that the intensity of the electrolytic action can be controlled.
Means may also be provided for the automatic replenishment of water within the cell as the level of the electrolytic drops during use.
While it is recognized that the mixing of hydrogen and oxygen will create a dangerous explosive mixture, nevertheless by carrying out the invention as hereinbefore described the risk of explosion is minimized. The gases produced can be utilized for instance as a fuel to power an internal combustion engine and for this purpose it is desirable, as before mentioned, to mix with the gases evolved during the electrolysis a proportion of air so that when the mixture is ignited within the cylinder or cylinders of the engine, the explosive force so created can be of the desired amount.
While in the foregoing description reference is made to the utilization of the mixed gases as a fuel, it will of course be understood that the gases can be separated for individual use by technique as known in the art.
# What is claimed is:
1 – A process for producing by electrolysis of an aqueous liquid a combustoble mixture of hydrogen and oxygen, comprising: electrolyzing the aqueous liquid into hydrogen and oxygen in an electrolytic cell having a gas tight casing, a substantially central tubular post mounted in the casing and having an air inlet at its upper end, and a plurality of electrodes supported on the post and axially spaced therealong, alternate electrodes being connected to a first electrical terminal and to a second electrical terminal respectively connected to a respective pole of a current source and being mutually insulated, the post having an air outlet below the electrodes out of which flows air from the air inlet into the cell and over the electrodes; and a source of air under pressure connected to the said air inlet forcing a flow of air through the aqueous liquid contained in the cell in operation thereof; the cell having in its upper region a common outlet exhausting the combustible mixture comprising air forced through the cell and hydrogen produced by electrolysis of said liquid in said cell.
2 – The process according to claim 1 wherein the electrodes are discs each having a plurality of holes therethrough.
3 – The process according to claim 1 further including a dish-shaped air deflector plate supported on the said post below the said air outlet.
4 – Apparatus for producing by electrolysis of an aqueous liquid a combustible mixture of hydrogen and oxygen, comprising: an electrolytic cell having a gas-tight casing, a substantially central tubular post mounted in the casing and having an air inlet at its upper end, and a plurality of electrodes supported on the post and axially spaced therealong, alternate electrodes being connected to a first electrical terminal and to a second electrical terminal respectively for connection to respective poles of a current source and being mutually insulated, the post having an air outlet below the electrodes for flow of air from the air inlet into the cell and over the electrodes; a dish-shaped air deflector supported on said post below said air outlet; and a source of air under pressure connected to the said air inlet for forcing a flow of air through the aqueous liquid contained in the cell in operation thereof; the cell having in its upper region a common outlet for exhausting the combustible mixture comprising air forced through the cell and hydrogen and oxygen produced by electrolysis of said liquid in said cell.
5 – The apparatus according to claim 4 wherein the electrodes are discs each having a plurality of holes therethrough. End of patent.
## since the 70’s, Daniel DINGLE, Philippines,this inventor runs his car with water, very famous, his government always discourage him to develop his invention, and to patent it; Use of High Voltage Electrolysis.
Daniel Dingel’s Hydrogen-Powered internet Group http://groups.yahoo.com/group/watercar/
– From Part 2-Electrolysis.doc (you can find it on the web)
Depending on what material your electrodes are made out of may determine water color as these chemicals become dissolved into solution. Some people wondered about Dingle’s ‘blue water’ but if you look at his pictures you see ‘copper’ tubing being used as electrodes-cum-bubblers. An ionized form of copper turns blue.
Daniel Dingle’s Water Car: This section would not be complete without a mention of Daniel Dingle and his inventions. Dan has been having fun showing off confusing examples of basically the same kind of cells that I have described in Parts 1 and 2.He has used a number of different cell techniques and mixed and matched as I have described above, and then added bits and pieces that don’t do anything but add confusion to anyone looking at his operating units.Cleaver boy.
Link: Reaktor 1999 ——————— Mitte: Reaktor 2000 ——————– Rechts: Reaktor 2001
For example, one cell is a bubbler only, another produces nitrous hydroxide and is fed into the intake manifold, and another is just normal caustic soda electrolysis cell and is fed into the carburetor
And it would be better if he just opened up and came clean with what he is experimenting with.I see no mysteries ..just someone trying to be too cleaver.
Telefon in Manila: Billigvorwahl: 01051 Office: 0063-2-7880767 email@example.com
– In German from : http://www.wasserauto.de/html/daniel_dingel.html
– A video to download http://home.arcor.de/freie.energie/Dingel 2000 Movie.WMV
– A galerie of pictures :http://home.arcor.de/freie.energie/Dingel Galerie.htm
– Also : http://cas.bellarmine.edu/tietjen/Resources/Indeo%20V5.0/indeo_5.htm
## From http://countrycoast.com/daniel.htm9/27/04
A discussion group established for interaction on the invention of the century, the Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) powered by hydrogen derived ON DEMAND from plain water. The invention is by Engr. Daniel D. Dingel, a Filipino. The theory is simple: Liquid water is split into hydrogen and oxygen and then the two gases are recombined to form water vapor.
This essentially could be the elusive car that runs on water.
– And many pictures at : http://2oo5.free.fr/dd/
Begining May, 2004, I was visiting D. Dingel to see his watercar. I thank him for having accepted my visit. Here are some pictures/videos about this event
Remark : it seems that this journalist scared the petrol lobbies because at the end of her article she denied the well running of Dingle’s car…
## 1980, M. Hector-Pierre VAES, MASER electrolyzer, for a car using a bit of LPG and water.
Translation from http://www.ovni.ch/~kouros/voiture.htm by C.P. Kouropoulos.
MASER = Microwave Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation, to accelerate the splitting of the water molecules, that is very slow with normal electrolysis.
M. VAES said he was not the first to use this system that is very well known and used in Japan !
M. Lucien VUFFRAY, ingeener in Geneva, that tested the car, say that the MASER’s membranes consume only 10 milliamperes of current, what gives a total power used of 127 milliwatts under the 12,7V of the battery, what is far less than a head lamp.
He said a glowing orange light was coming out of the MASER and the cell when it was running. (sonofusion ?)
It’s an electrolysis system installed under the hood of his Chevrolet, that gave him more than 2,000 kms on a 60 litres tank of LPG.
Before the Chevrolet consumption was about 20 litres per 100kms (12 mpg), and now 3 litres of LPG + 0,9 litre of water per 100kms.
The LPG was used almost only for the starting phase. Exhaust was almost without smell, but of a sweet odore remembering burning alchool.
Using electrodes made of porous metallic membranes made in Japan. The tank for distilled water was of 4 litres only.
## 1983, Dr. Andrija Puharich, USA, 4,394,230, Method & Apparatus for Splitting Water Molecules http://www.rexresearch.com/puharich/1puhar.htmhttp://www.atlantisrising.com/issue4/ar4topten.html
SYSTEM TO SPLIT WATER FOR FUEL BY USING RESONANCE
Another variation on the water-fuel theme relies more on vibrations than on chemistry. At more than 100 per cent efficiency, such a system produces hydrogen gas and oxygen from ordinary water at normal temperatures and pressure.
One example is U.S. Patent 4,394,230, Method and Apparatus for Splitting Water Molecules, issued to Dr. Andrija Puharich in 1983. His method made complex electrical wave forms resonate water molecules and shatter them, which freed hydrogen and oxygen. By using Tesla’s understanding of electrical resonance, Puharich was able to split the water molecule much more efficiently than the brute-force electrolysis that every physics student knows. (Resonance is what shatters a crystal goblet when an opera singer hits the exact note which vibrates with the crystal’s molecular structure.)
Puharich reportedly drove his mobile home using only water as fuel for several hundred thousand kilometers in trips across North America. In a high Mexican mountain pass he had to make do with snow for fuel. Splitting water molecules as needed in a vehicle is more revolutionary than the hydrogen-powered systems with which every large auto manufacturer has dallied. With the on-demand system, you don’t need to carry a tank full of hydrogen fuel which could be a potential bomb.
Another inventor who successfully made fuel out of water on the spot was the late Francisco Pacheco of New Jersey. The Pacheco Bi-Polar Auto electric Hydrogen Generator (U.S. Patent No. 5,089,107) separated hydrogen from seawater as needed.
A pioneer in breaking down water into hydrogen and oxygen without heat or ordinary electricity, John Worrell Keely reportedly performed feats which 20th-century science is unable to duplicate. He worked with sound and other vibrations to set machines into motion. To liberate energy in molecules of water, Keely poured a quart of water into a cylinder where tuning forks vibrated at the exact frequency to liberate the energy. Does this mean he broke apart the water molecules and liberated hydrogen, or did he free a more primal form of energy? The records which could answer such questions are lost. However, a century later, Keely is being vindicated. One scientist recently discovered that Keely was correct in predicting the exact frequency which would burst apart a water molecule. Keely understood atoms to be intricate vibratory phenomena.http://www.delphion.com/details?pn=US04394230
Puharich mentioned a statement S.S. Penner and L. Iverman, taken from the book “Energy”, Vol. II, Non-Nuclear Energy Technologies, Addison-Wesley Publ. Company, Inc. Rev,. Edition, 1977. p. 140 ff:
“It should be possible to improve the efficiency achieved in practical electrolysis to about 100% because, under optimal operative conditions, the theoretically-attainable energy conversion by electrolysis is about 120% of the electrical energy input.” …
“When H2 (gas) and O (gas) are generated by electrolysis, the electrolysis cell must absorb heat from the surroundings, in order to remain at constant temperature. It is this ability to produce gaseous electrolysis that is ultimately responsible for energy-conversion efficiencies during electrolysis greater than unity.”
Puharich has realized that the water molecule can be energized by electrical means so as to shift the bond from the 104 deg. configuration to the 109 deg. 28 sec. tetrahedral geometrical configuration. An electrical function generator is used to produce complex electrical wave form frequencies which are applied to, and match the complex resonant frequencies of the tetrahedral geometrical form of water. Puharich has found a resonant frequency of 600 Hz (+/- 5 Hz) when he used 4 Volt rms and 25 mA (100 mW) or 2.6 V and 38 mA (98.8 mW).
## Water Decomposition by Means of Alternating Current Electrolysis,A. Puharich, Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Nonconventional Energy Technology, Toronto, pp. 49-77, (1981).
Reference cited in the book of Moray King, Tapping the zero point energy, ISBN 1-931882-00-2.
The author experimentally decomposed water to hydrogen and oxygen by an electrical excitation at a mixture of frequencies that match the water molecule’s resonant frequencies.
The author claims a net energy gain; i.e., more energy is produced when the hydrogen and oxygen recombine than it took to separate them.
(Where did the energy come from? Perhaps by inducing ion-acoustic resonance in the water, a vacuum-polarized, self-organizing interaction with the ZPE occurs. This experiment has similarities to ‘free energy’ devices that pulse a battery’s electrolyte.)
## From November 2007, Stanley Meyer related files moved to the new dedicated page: stan_meyer_electrolyser.html
## 1990, YOSHIRO NAKAMATSU invented ENEREX a device that enable automobiles to operate on PLAIN WATER. http://community-2.webtv.net/RICHARDPORTER/MADWEBTVSCIENTIST
at the Monroeville Expo Mart in suburban Pittsburgh, seeking investors and marketers. The start of the 3 days exhibition marked the unveiling of the engine created by YOSHIRO NAKAMATSU, who became known as the “EDISON OF JAPAN” after inventing the computer FLOPPY DISK and the DIGITAL WATCH.
NAKAMATSU said his pollution-free engine, called “ENEREX” runs on tap water alone and can create three time as much power as a standard engine. This information reported in the “STATESMAN JOURNAL” in Salem, Oregon.
The article also stated that as of ay 4, 1990,SO STATED THAT AS OF MAY 4, 1990, MR. NAKAMATSU had more than 2000 patents in the US and Japan.As of 2003 he has over 3000 inventions!
– or http://community-2.webtv.net/RICHARDPORTER2/OneCreativeGeniusAn Changed:7:16 PM on Monday, April 10, 2006
DR. YOSHIRO NAKAMATSU AND HIS “ENEREX” THAT WON THE INTERNATIONAL INVENTORS CONTEST “INVENTOR OF THE YEAR” AWARD IN 1990
Notice how compact ENEREX is. In the TV program Dr. Nakamatau points out some basic principles about ENEREX that are explained in more detail by the “Meyer’s Fuel Cell” discussion.
## Extracts of Dr. Yoshiro Nakamatsu interview by Chic Thompson: Address: http://www.whatagreatidea.com/nakamatsu.htm Changed:12:21 PM on Sunday, February 26, 2006 (Funny how urls about free enegy tend to not work right sometimes, isn’t it.)
Nakamatsu:In my country, the drive to succeed-and the competition-is unbelievably intense. From early on, Japanese children are under enormous pressure to learn. I was fortunate that my parents encouraged my natural curiosity along with my academic learning from the very beginning. They gave me the freedom to create and invent-which Ive been doing for as long as I can remember.
Chic:What are the teaching methods used to prepare Japanese children for the strong competition they face? And how does this affect creativity?
Nakamatsu: One method is memorization. We teach our kids to memorize until the age of twenty, for we have discovered that the human brain needs memorization up to that point. Then young people can begin free-associating, putting everything together. Thats how geniuses are formed. If a child doesnt learn how to memorize effectively, he doesnt reach his full potential.
Chic:So you feel that creativity comes from a balance of regimentation and freedom?
Nakamatsu:Yes, but freedom is most important of all. Genius lies in developing complete and perfect freedom within a human being. Only then can a person come up with the best ideas.
Chic:Then tell me about your routine to spark creativity. Ive heard that you come up with ideas underwater!
Nakamatsu:Yes, thats part of a three-step process. When developing ideas, the first rule is You have to be calm. So Ive created what I call my static room. Its a place of peace and quiet. In this room, I only have natural things: a rock garden, natural running water, plants, a five-ton boulder from Kyoto. The walls are white. I can look out on the Tokyo skyline, but in the room there is no metal or concrete-only natural things like water and rock and wood.
Chic:So you go into your static room to meditate?
Nakamatsu:No, just the opposite! I go into the room to free-associate. Its what you must do before meditating, before focusing on one thing. I just throw out ideas-I let my mind wander where it will.
Chic:I call that naive incubation.
Nakamatsu:Yes, its my time to let my mind be free. Then I go into my dynamic room, which is just the opposite of my static room. The dynamic room is dark, with black-and-white-striped walls, leather furniture, and special audio and video equipment. Ive created speakers with frequencies between 12 and 40,000 hertz-which, you can imagine, are quite powerful. I start out listening to jazz, then change to what you call easy listening, and always end with Beethovens Fifth Symphony. For me, Beethovens Fifth is good music for conclusions.
Chic:And finally you go to your swimming pool…
Nakamatsu:Exactly-the final stage. I have a special way of holding my breath and swimming underwater-thats when I come up with my best ideas. Ive created a Plexiglas writing pad so that I can stay underwater and record these ideas. I call it creative swimming.
Chic:That seems to fit very well with the strategy I teach in my creativity workshops: discover and use your idea-friendly times.
Nakamatsu: Yes, but in doing this, you must prepare your body. You can only eat the best foods. You cannot drink alcohol.
Chic:Ive heard that youve come up with your own brain food.
Nakamatsu: Yes, these are snacks Ive invented, which I eat during the day. Ive marketed them as Yummy Nutri Brain Food. They are very helpful to the brains thinking process. They are a special mixture of dried shrimp, seaweed, cheese, yogurt, eel, eggs, beef, and chicken livers-all fortified with vitamins.
Chic: How many people-technicians, researchers, and assistants-do you employ to help with your inventions?
Nakamatsu:In all, I have 110 employees …They work with my ideas, make prototypes, and give other assistance with details.
Nakamatsu: Yes. Twice a day I take thirty-minute naps in a special chair Ive designed-the Cerebrex chair. It improves memory, math skills, and creativity, and it can lower blood pressure, improve eyesight, and cure other ailments.
Special sound frequencies pulse from footrest to headrest, stimulating blood circulation and increasing synaptic activity in the brain. An hour in my chair refreshes the brain as much as eight hours of sleep.
## Dr. NakaMats Cerebrex is invented by Dr. Yoshiro NakaMats to enhance human performance. http://nakamats.com/english/cxweb/top.html
Dr. NakaMats Cerebrex was designed by Dr. NakaMats Cerebral Sensory Resilience Theory using physical physics. Dr. NakaMats has researched for several decades. Dr. NakaMats Cerebrex is by “Bouncing Effect” to increase the blood flow to the brain. Therefore it increases supply of oxygen and nutrients to brain cells to make your brain mechanism more active and functional.
Dr. NakaMats Cerebrex is not only good for your brain function, but also beneficial for maintaining health by enhancing good blood circulation to all of your vital organs.
# 1995, US Patent # 5399,251 , Yoshiro NAKAMATS, System for Generating Hydrogen and Oxygen , by Rexresearch.com http://rexresearch.com/nakamats/nakamats.htm
A system for generating hydrogen and oxygen includes a tank and a solid polyelectrolyte film which separates the tank into first and second portions. Electrodes are provided on opposed first and second sides of the polyelectrolyte film. A power supply is connected to the electrodes. The system includes means for introducing water into the bottom of the first portion of the tank and a vibrating means for vibrating the polyelectrolyte film, electrodes and water. A power regulator which regulates power from the power supply and includes an electronic element that generates heat is provided. The electronic element is mounted in the tank for heating the water. The hydrogen generated by the system may be supplied together with gasoline to the engine of an automobile while the generated oxygen may be released to the inside of the car.
References Cited: U.S. Patent Documents
4124463 ~ Nov., 1978 ~ Blue ~ 204/129
4312736 ~ Jan., 1982 ~ Menth et al ~ 205/255
4352722 ~ Oct., 1982 ~ Ohkawa ~ 204/129
4369737 ~ Jan., 1983 ~ Sanders et al. ~ 123/3
4442801 ~ Apr., 1984 ~ Glynn et al. ~ 123/3
4720331 ~ Jan., 1988 ~ Billings ~ 204/129
5037518 ~ Aug., 1991 ~ Young et al. ~ 204/230
FIELD OF THE INVENTION :
This invention relates to an energy system for electrolyzing water with high efficiency to generate hydrogen and oxygen. Such hydrogen and oxygen may be employed, for example, as a fuel for powering automobiles, ships, airplanes and rockets, and for generating electricity. The system enables reduction of air pollution.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION :
This invention is directed to the provision of a method for reducing or eliminating air pollution by effectively extracting hydrogen from water without changing the construction of the engine. Hydrogen has such properties as wider combustion range, higher combustion speed, less ignition energy and more easily making uniform mixed gas than gasoline, and this invention contemplates. the combustion of diluted mixed gas and decreases the exhaust of nitrogen dioxide.
# – 1993, Yoshiro NAKAMATS, US Patent # 5,178,118, Energy system for applying mixed hydrogen and gasoline to an engine.
Abstract : An energy system comprises a solid polyelectrolyte film in the water bath, and a source of electric current connected to the film, for generating hydrogen. The hydrogen is mixed with gasoline in an amount, dependent upon the size of load on the engine, the thinness of the mixed gas, the size of the mixing ration, and the ignition time, to obtain the minimum time for the best torque (MBT).
## 1991, Juan Carlos AGUERO, Cordoba, Spain. An European patent for a car running with WATER ONLY ; including electrolysis : http://www.geocities.com/captpjk/
## 1992, Francesco PACHECO; Hydrogen Generator, US patent 5,089,107, http://www.atlantisrising.com/issue4/ar4topten.html
## Kramers Water Car – Plan 3: A SALTWATER CELL , By Thomas C. Kramer August 2003
For those of you who are not familiar with the patents of Francisco Pacheco, you should do some research.Francisco has a very interesting approach to hydrogen production, which is worthy of additional research and review.
Basically he has combined a voltaic cell with an electrolysis cell.
A voltaic cell is one that produces electricity, that is, a battery!This voltage is accomplished through the chemical degradation of an electrode (cathode -) in an electrolyte solution, in this case .magnesium electrodes in salt water.
In this design the anode (+) is stainless steel 316.
The magnesium in this voltaic cell actually oxidizes from the pure metal to magnesium oxide that just precipitates out as sludge at the bottom of the cell unless otherwise flushed and filtered out, as is done later.This is similar to what happens in a normal lead-acid battery where the lead eventually precipitates out as oxides and sulfides causing the cell to short and cease functioning because of the sludge that settles to the bottom of the casing.
Francisco is just making a magnesium battery first.When the magnesium reacts with salt water the hydrogen is released and the magnesium oxidizes.Taa Daa!Hydrogen gas!
This reaction, however, creates heat and makes the electrolyte solution progressively basic (excess OH- ions).If the cell gets too hot the reaction slows down and excess water vapor is produced.No good.So the system requires a pump and a heat exchanger, that is, some looped tubing (finned if possible) or a small radiator, perhaps with a fan, to keep the electrolyte solution cool.Just running a line from the reactor in the engine compartment to a water tank in the trunk, should cool things down enough.
The amount of voltage (and hydrogen gas) produced is controlled by a variable resistor (potentiometer or pot).This is connected between the cathode and anode plates.And as before, the pot can be connected to your throttle linkage.
An on/off switch should also be connected either before or after your pot to control the reactor.This switch is NOT connected to your car ignition or battery system, but is just an in-line switch.Simply, you do not want current from your battery to mix with the current generated from the voltaic cell.You can hook-up a solenoid switch from your ignition that will activate this cell switch or use a dash mounted separate switch.
Pacheco found out through prolonged usage that his voltaic cell just didnt work. It would heat up and loose performance.The sludge would build up and short the reaction. And the electrolyte would become progressively basic further retarding the reaction.All no good.
His solution was quite simple and productive.He added an electrolysis cell and a pump and a filter.The electrolysis cell neutralized the base in the electrolyte solution and the pump and the filter effectively took out the precipitates, while running the electrolyte through a cooling system.This is well thought out.
But the really interesting thought came when he realized that the voltaic cells produced enough power to run his pump AND his electrolysis cell too!Hey, why wastes power.
The voltaic cell produces hydrogen gas and the electrolysis cell produces both hydrogen and oxygen.His one little mistake is that he vented off the oxygen to the atmosphere, instead of running it into the engine.We know better.
How to Build a Pacheco Cell:
Note the last cell in the battery is separated by a wall that is not perforated, (a solid wall except for a hole along the bottom).This is the electrolysis cell and is wired separately for the cathode and anode.
As noted above, the cathodes in the voltaic cell are magnesium plates or rods.The anodes are stainless steel.Pacheco, however, uses either carbon or aluminum plates for both the cathode and anode in the electrolysis cell. These electrodes are separated by a plastic wall.Some experimentation may be done with other plates for the electrolysis unit.
An alternative is to use both an old battery unit as the voltaic cell and connect this to a water filter electrolysis unit as was designed before.
And for those of you who have followed Daniel Dingles various confusing presentations, at one time he claimed to use salt water and pictures show a pipe going from some of his reactor cells to the carburetor and another reactor cell pipe going to the intake manifold.Hmmm.Hydrogen into the carburetor and a mixed gas bubbler reactor into the manifold, and all from an old battery casing.
As mentioned above, Pachecos unique realization was that he could create enough power with his voltaic cell to power the electrolysis AND a small pump to circulate the electrolyte solution.The amount of the electrical current produced was controlled by the pot, which also controlled the amount of electrolysis AND the speed of the pump.
This is a nice neat closed loop system.
This design balances the electrolyte solution by converting the excessive OH- using the electrolysis cell into hydrogen and oxygen. Now what would happen if you used this power from the voltaic unit to run some electromagnetic coils in either the voltaic cells or electrolysis cells or even coiled around the gas pipelines?Parahydrogen perhaps?
Measurements will have to be taken to see just how much power is generated by the voltaic unit and the actual resistance in the wiring that you may use in order to balance the electrolysis cell operation and still be able to run the pump.You may find that the pump may be easier to run separately from the car battery if there is not enough power generated by the voltaic cell.
The only problem that you will probably run into is the supply of magnesium plates.These may be difficult to find and may be a bit expensive.Also, if these units ever get into commercial production, you will want to save your filters and magnesium oxide precipitates, as these can be recycled.
Other Saltwater Cells:
Juan Carlos Aguero filed a European patent application (no. 90306988.8) in 1990 for a saltwater cell using carbon or carbon and iron electrodes.His approach also works but it uses lots of amps (80) and volts (75-100), will eat up the iron electrode and produces sodium hydroxide and chlorine gases.Your alternator puts out 12 volts and 40 amps.The electrode sludge and replacement was not properly addressed.And the salt gases vented to the atmosphere are highly corrosive and poisonous! This is not such a good approach.
Juan Carlos, however, did have some good ideas concerning (1) a buffer gas storage container, (2) a fuel heater system, and (3) a bubbler steam modification unit.Basically, he realized the importance of delivering more water vapor to the engine to retard the combustion by generating steam and conditioning this with the fuel mix.He accomplished this by just wrapping tubing around the exhaust pipe and using the heat generated to better vaporize the fuel and water vapor mix entering the engine.
He also used a pulsed DC circuit to stimulate his electrodes and this would account for the amplification to higher volts and allow for a throttle pot to control the reaction.His electrode arrangement, however, would draw too many amps to be practical in a normal car with a small alternator.
Saltwater is a natural electrolyte solution of sodium (Na) and chlorine (Cl) (table salt).The concentration of salt can thus be varied and this can affect the amount of hydrogen gas produced.But if you also produce chlorine and sodium hydroxide gases, you can eat up your engine pretty quick, thus ALWAYS USE A BUBBLER on your fuel intake line and change this water bath periodically. Mineral salts can also be used in these cells, but the heavier minerals may precipitate out of solution.
Pacheco noted that the prolonged use of the saltwater voltaic cell resulted in increased levels of hydroxide (OH-) and specifically sodium hydroxide (lye), which can be very corrosive.This increase in sodium hydroxide will progressively reduce the efficiency of the cell as less electrolyte solution becomes available.To prevent this, he electrolyzed the hydroxide into hydrogen and oxygen, thus restoring the electrolyte to its maximum performance condition.
Juan Carlos did not address this issue and only assumed that he could vent off the sodium hydroxide and chlorine as exhausted gases.That is not a good idea for one, and separating these gases from the hydrogen produced would be difficult, even with a membrane filter.Running the mixed gas through the bubbler will create saltwater there too, which will eventually find its way into the engine.Salt in any engine is bad news!Hot salty steam is even worse!
A little bit of salt in almost any electrolyte solution is usually beneficial to the reaction.Concentrated saltwater or sea water electrolyte solutions, however, can lead to corrosive problems and thus the use of stainless steel or plastic containment reactors.
Pachecos design coupled with a bubbler on the fuel line is a very good idea.The only problem is in the cost and availability of magnesium plates or rods.
A marriage of Pachecos design with Agueros gas storage and water vaporizing units is an even better approach, particularly since gas production is not instantaneous to throttle demand.
Adding magnetic coils to these combined designs should also increase performance due to the polarizing effect of the electromagnetic fields on the electrolyte solution.
Pachecos use of a voltaic cell to generate hydrogen gas only can be modified using other plate materials as well.This is only a battery, thus you may be able to use those old lead plates that you removed from your battery casing here as well.You will just be making a saltwater battery and flushing it out regularly.
You can also substitute the plates for stainless steel tubes and lead rods, perhaps adding a bit more lye (NaOH) to stimulate the reaction, but again using this reaction as a battery to run a small electrolysis cell to adjust the electrolyte solution.
Other metals will react differently in a saltwater voltaic or electrolysis cell.Magnesium is more highly reactive than most and thus should work well, but it is fun to experiment, thus I would recommend using what you have as see how it works.
In this reactor you are producing primarily hydrogen gas, thus this fuel should be run through a gas regulator before your carburetor.
If your gas production is small (due to a small reactor design or use of different plates) then you can feed this into the intake manifold direct as a fuel booster.The vacuum created should draw the fuel through a bubbler and create a low pressure within the reactor chamber, improving performance.You will also have to have a regulated air intake into the chamber and this may cause the production of small quantities of nitrous oxides or nitrous hydroxides, which will also burn well in your engine.
Saltwater electrolysis is thus worth a try using the modifications suggested above.Even dropping a few grains of salt into your normal electrolysis unit should help.Try it and see!
## 1998, Herman P. Anderson, USA, Hydrogen sparkplug, Patent #5,852,993 and #6,119,651 http://www.hermansinsight.com/?BISKIT=3257063125
The inventor :
Herman P. Anderson, a man of many talents, is was known as ‘King of the Ion’ and was the world’s leading authority on ions. He has been inventing things since the age of 12 and his inventions include a 4 dimensionsal camera, an improved Tesla coil, a sodium ion powered flying machine, an ionic air cleaner, a car that runs on water, an ion ray gun, and a magnetic ion motor. Herman will be remembered as the inventor of the hydrogen powered automobile.
His patented hydrogen technologies will not only clean up our environment, they will boost the sagging national and global economies.
Herman has consulted with Nasa and the US Airforce on some of our country’s most important Top Secret Projects including the first US satellite in space, the SR-71 Blackbird, the Stealth Fighter/Bomber and Starwars. Herman worked closely with Dr. Wernher von Braun testing hydrogen powered rocket engines, and he also worked with engineers at the now famous Skunk Works, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, JPL, and Cal Tech. While in the Air Force during WWII, Herman served as a fighter pilot, a flight instructor and bombadier trainer.
The insight :
Herman’s insight is a simple but profound idea that has influenced much of his life’s work. As a boy of 12, Herman was watching his neighbor John Robinson split wood. Mr Robinson had a simple kerosene engine that powered his log splitter. To make the engine more powerful John heated the kerosene tank over a wood fire and then fed the heated kerosene into the engine. The setup resembled a still and though at the time Herman didn’t think to ask Mr. Robinson about this, the idea stayed with him.
While serving as a pilot in the Air Force, during WWII, Herman told a friend about the idea. In turn, this friend told another friend about the idea, and they decided to try it on his Model A Ford, since gasoline was being rationed at the time and kerosene was not. The Model A had a gravity feed gas tank. With copper tubing they added a new fuel line that was wrapped 7 times around the exhaust pipe before going to the engine. This heated the kerosene a great deal and the results were hard to believe. The heated kerosene performed as well as and sometimes better than gasoline. The car ran on kerosene throught the war without any problems.
Years later while working on the SR-71 Blackbird the insight came into play again. Working at Arnold Engineering, Herman tested the engines for the SR-71. One problem facing the Blackbird’s engineers was the fact that the plane’s exterior heats up as its speed increases. At high speeds, the temperature exceeds 400 degrees Fahrenheit. Herman realized this heat could be used to increase the power of the fuel for the Black Bird’s engines. The results were dramatic and led to the Black Bird setting speed and altitude records which stand to this day.
…More BTUs means more heating or cooling. More BTUs in the fuel means more horsepower. Heat the fuel for more power.
One of the key reasons Herman P. Anderson has been so successful with hydrogen comes from the fact that he increases the mass energy density of the hydrogen. This means he compresses the gas to get more of it in the same space, meaning more fuel in the same space. This combined with heating the fuel gives hydrogen more than enough power to run any internal combustion engine. Herman is the only one so far who has understood hydrogen well enough to realize it’s full potential. And while it may seem simple, actually the idea and its details are incredibly complex. Herman has simplified the complexity of quantum physics to create for us technology that will save our planet.
He has invented and patented technologies which allow internal combustion engines to run on hydrogen gas and achieve full power.
Herman has overcome the common problem of poor performance by re-inventing the sparkplug and developing a system that increases the mass energy density of the hydrogen fuel being used.
During his life he has worked as a farmer, chauffeur, welder, pilot, physicist and inventor. He has also consulted with NASA and the US Airforce on some of our country’s most important Top-Secret projects. These unique experiences and their effect on his life have led him to an insight that is changing our world, and saving the planet.
Nikola Tesla invented the spark plug in 1898. The spark plug has been innovated many times since then; Herman P. Anderson has reinvented the spark plug, giving it the additional function of acting as a fuel injector
Minor adjustements are being made to the fuel injecting sparkplugs and testing is ongoing as of January 2004. The new configuration features the sparkplugs as described in the second patent. The car has been sucessfully tested using the sparkplug adapters as described in the first patent.
The Green Machine
Herman’s 1978 Fort LTD came to be known as The Green Machine. Using a modified propane carburator, Herman converted the LTD to run on hydrogen in 1980. Due to the low mass energy density of hydrogen, Herman was only able to get a little more than half power from the engine with this traditional induction system. To increase the power of the hydrogen, he irradiated it making deuterium. The extra proton was more than enough to allow the engine to achieve full power. Unfortunately, state officials decided the radioactive source under the hood would not be safe for widespread use. They did however allow Herman to continue driving the car and he put nearly 30, 000 miles on the car running on hydrogen. Realizing the technology could be improved, Herman went back to the drawing board.
The Green Machine also employed onboard electrolysis, meaning that to fill the gas tank, Herman would pour in distilled water. Yes there is a car that “runs on water.” The car is now parked in the research facilities at MTSU.
… Associated Ceramics and Technology will be manufacturing the alumina electrodes, a key component of the hydrogen direct injection sparkplugs.
For more information, please contact Ray Lassinger Jr. at 724-353-1585.
Why Hydrogen ?
Hydrogen is the most abundant element in the universe and it has the highest energy content per unit of weight of any known fuel. Hydrogen when burned produces only heat, water and oxides of nitrogen, thus emissions are nearly zero when compared to fossil fuels.
## 1998, Christopher Robert ECCLES, UK patent 2,324,307, FRACTURE CELL APPARATUS; It’s an High Voltage electrolysis system ; WO 00/25320 “Energy Generation”(2000)
This invention relates to fracture cell apparatus and the method of generating fuel gas from such fracture cell apparatus. In particular, but not exclusively, the invention relates to an apparatus and method for providing fuel gas from water.
The present invention seeks to provide an alternative method of producing fracture of certain simple molecular species, for example water.
According to one aspect of the present invention there is provided fracture cell apparatus including a capacitive fracture cell comprising a container having walls made of non-electrically conducting material for containing a liquid dielectric, and spaced apart electrode means positioned outside the container with the liquid dielectric between the electrodes means, and means for applying positive and negative voltage pulse is applied to one of the two electrode means, the other of a positive voltage pulse and a negative voltage pulse is applied to the other of the two electrode means, thereby creating an alternating electric field across the liquid dielectric to cause fracture of the liquid dielectric.
In apparatus according to the invention the electrode means do not contact the liquid dielectric which is to be fractured or disrupted.
No purely ohmic element of conductance exists within the fracture cell and, in use, no current flows due to an ion-carrier mechanism within the cell.
The required fracture or disruption of the liquid dielectric is effected by the applied electric field whilst only a simple displacement current occurs within the cell.
Typically step voltages in excess of 15kV, typically about 25 kV, on either side of a reference potential, e.g. earth, are applied to the electrode means.
In effect trains of pulses having alternating positive and negative values are applied to the electrode means, the pulses applied to the different electrode means being ‘phase shifted’.
The pulse trains are synchronised so that there is a short time interval between the removal of pulses from one electrode plate set and the application of pulses to the other electrode plate set.
#See in Water PLASMA page for the Cold Fusion experiments of M. ECCLES.
## 2004, Stephen Barrie CHAMBERS / XOGEN POWER Inc., Canada, USP 6,790,324 B2, ‘Hydrogen Producing Apparatus’: http://freeenergy2000.tripod.com/chambers.htm
## 2005, Ronald CLASSEN; another concept to run on water only ; find his pictures on the web and Yahoo groups, named: RC5, RC6, RC7, RC9, RC9A, RC9B, RC9C,…
ELECTROLYSIS + HOT WET WATER VAPOR + PLASMA SPARK
## Bubbles and steam electricity from : http://www.esdjournal.com/techpapr/prevens/article.htm
In 1840, Lord Armstrong was the first to study the electrical charge produced as steam escaped from boilers, the phenomenon called steam electricity. In 1969, interest in steam electricity was renewed because of explosions caused by the ignition of chemical vapors during the washing of ship tanks with steam jets. Steam electricity is proposed explained by the bubbles nucleated in the boiling of water droplets, the bubbles behaving like resonant quantum electrodynamic (QED) cavities. During bubble growth as the bubble cavity resonance coincides with vacuum ultraviolet frequencies, the water molecules on the bubble walls dissociate by cavity QED into hydronium H3O+ and hydroxyl OH- ions. After recombination, only about 20% of the ions are available for electrification, the ions called available ions to be distinguished from the hydronium and hydroxyl ions in the bubble walls described by the pH and pOH of water, called background ions.
Faraday responded to Armstrong by letter  stating he investigated the Seghill incident and using an electrometer found the steam to be positive charged The ionization of water is 2H2O = H3O+ + OH-
## 2005, M. BALACHOV, HIGH-TEMPERATURE ELECTROLYSIS, DOE, California, PDF document.
High-temperature electrolysis of steam is known to be at least two times more energy-efficient for H2 generation than low-temperature electrolysis.
An additional, at least five fold, decrease in electricity consumption can be achieved by reducing electrolyzer voltage using an anodic depolarizer.
The cost of H2 generation will be further reduced if the high-temperature electrolyzer is deployed next to a source of waste heat and distributed power generation unit.
We will develop a prototype of a modular industrial system for low-cost generation of H2 (
Water will be decomposed electrochemically into H2 and O2 on the cathode side of a high-temperature electrolyzer.
Oxygen ions will migrate through an oxygen-ion-conductive solid oxide electrolyte.
Gas mixtures on the cathode side (H2+H2O) and on the anode side (CO+CO2) will be reliably separated by the solid electrolyte.
Depolarization of the anodic process will decrease the electrolysis voltage, and thus the electricity required for H2 generation and the cost of produced H2.
## Paulo Mateiro, another surprising result of resonant electrolysis : found in Captain PJK files :
## 2005, Hydrogen Solar Tandem Cells, using direct solar light: http://thefraserdomain.typepad.com/energy/hydrogen/index.html
The Hydrogen Solar Ltd Tandem Cell is a self-contained unit which directly splits water molecules into high-purity hydrogen and oxygen using solar energy. Itsignificantly reduces carbon emissions by eliminating the fossil fuels normally used in electrolysis or steam reforming to produce hydrogen.
The cells are made from low cost materials. The most expensive material used is the glass that the cells are made from.The thin film semiconductors are iron or tungsten based rather than more expensive silicon materials. The process is now competitive, on the small scale, producing hydrogen at one third the cost than from PV solar panel-electrolysis systems.On the large scale it was, mid 2004, about twice the cost of steam reforming with natural gas.
Explanation of their system:
A flow cell, through which the water electrolyte passes, is in the front of the stack, the light passes through this cell to the Tandem Cell which consists of two photo-catalytic cells in series: the front cell, coated with nano-crystalline metal oxide thin films, absorbs the ultraviolet and blue light from sunlight and oxygen is formed on the surface.
This cell does not generate enough voltage to split the water, so the electrons are connected to the back cell.The longer wave-length green and red light pass through the front cell and are absorbed in the back dye-solar cell, increasing the potential of the electrons, which then flow to the hydrogen cathode where the hydrogen is formed.
This is not the arrangement used in real modules, but illustrates the principle, if this arrangement were used, a transparent membrane would have to be placed in the water cell to separate the hydrogen and oxygen.No external electricity is required. The process is renewable, produces no carbon dioxide or other emissions.
Continue reading “About Hydrogen Solar Tandem Cells” ” : http://thefraserdomain.typepad.com/energy/2005/10/hydrogen_solar_.html#more
## 2006, another discovery for WATER ELECTROLYSIS from direct sun light :
## 2006, Singapore, other utilizations of WATER ELECTROLYSIS :
MSC Power (S) Private limited is a Singapore Company. Fax: (65) 6863 firstname.lastname@example.org
A MSC solar power plant is a continuous 24/7 pyramid-like structure with multi-systems for generation of electricity and desalination of seawater to obtain potable/drinking water wherein the electricity is generated by hot air moving through Wind Turbine, by Gas Turbine and from Solar panels and the desalination is carried out, using the heat from the Main Thermal Tank and the steam generated from the H2O2 gas boilers.
Nature’s Abundant Energy Unleashed……….Water is the Fuel of the Future
Tun Dr. Mahathir viewingthe Green Gas Burner in action in KL – January 2006
Cooking Gas ………………………………………………………………. Boiler Burner
## Properties and Applications of Brown’s Gas, By T. Cullen, http://www.brownsgas.com/page/page/3353635.htm
# Detoxifying water:
In North America chlorine is used to purify water, intending to kill microorganisms that cause disease. Chlorine is a deadly poison and attempts are made to put in just enough to kill the microorganisms and not the person drinking it. Most of the rest of the world purifies water using Ozone, a form of oxygen. Oxygen kills the microorganisms without harm to people. Browns Gas is an excellent way to oxygenate drinking water.
# Atmosphere enhancement:
We now live in an area that has very dry air. We were using nearly a gallon (4 L) of water a night to keep our bedroom moist enough so that we could breathe easily. We are finding that the Browns Gas gives us the same results using only a cup (250 mL) of water per night.
# Help plants germinate and grow:
Plant growth can be enhanced by either hydrated water and/or ‘programmed’ water. The resulting plants and fruits are more healthful to eat, providing nutrition and energy that most current produce cannot.
# Neutralization of radioactive waste:
It has now been officially proven (in Canada) that Browns Gas can neutralize radioactive waste in seconds, easily and extremely inexpensively. This neutralization treatment can take place right at the nuclear reactor so there is no need to transport or store nuclear waste.
This issue is so politically HOT that we deliberately do not promote it. Browns Gas technology is not firmly enough in general use to prevent suppression by ‘vested interest’. This single application is worth billions of dollars and can revolutionize the nuclear power generation industry.
# Creating new industrial materials:
Brown’s Gas can both make and weld rubies together. Browns Gas can weld sapphires together. When Browns Gas cooks rocks, it turns then into semiprecious material; for example feldspar (30% of earth’s crust) turns into a transparent form of moonstone, which can be used as a nearly indestructible building material (colors can be added).
We’ve learned of two ways of using Browns Gas to make materials that did not exist in the original samples. We can make metals from water. Again, too politically HOT to touch.
# Inexpensive toxic waste disposal:
Browns Gas is an implosive flame, with the power to reduce nearly any material to it’s basic components (usually nontoxic).So enclosed chambers can be built to vaporize PCBs and other toxic waste.
# Vastly increase recoverable ore:
In tests conducted by several mines,Browns Gas treated ore allowed recovery of up to three times more mineral. Browns Gas can be used to treat waste dumps of obsolete mines, recovering more mineral than the mine originally produced. Again, this application is worth billions of dollars.
# Underwater breathing gas:
Browns Gas is nontoxic and breathable. When used as an underwater breathing gas it allows divers to stay underwater longer and come up faster because the hydrogen does not cause the bends as much as nitrogen or helium. This would allow much more use of ocean resources.
# Super-efficient room heating:
Generally, Browns Gas is a poor way to space heat, because the flame radiates very little infrared (heat) energy.
However; there is evidence that, using catalytic materials, a Browns Gas heater can be constructed that radiates huge amounts of heat and does not require any room venting. The efficiencies stated are 400%. In other words, a 1000 watts input will produce 4000 watts of heat. Eagle-Research has not yet verified this, but has seen enough evidence to list it here.
# Surface treatment of materials:
When a Browns Gas flame is played over the surface of materials, there are effects that can be beneficial. Iron becomes rust resistant, and can be surface hardened to prevent wear. Brick and cement become corrosion and water proof.
## Brown’s Gas Facts : http://www.brownsgas.com/page/page/3353674.htm
Gas and its flame have been used in and exhibits characteristics:
1) Used in a car the gas combusts and emits water vapor as the only effluent in its exhaust.
2) A solid-state refrigeration unit in which temperature could instantly be changed with no freon or other refrigeration chemicals.
3) A room heater fueled with the gas will carbonize a strip of paper held near it but not create flames or smoke.
4) Used in an acetylene torch it singed hairs from a welder’s forearm but didn’t burn the skin.
5) Flame from this gas can glaze concrete thus rendering it impervious to acids and other corrosives and greatly extending the concrete’s useful lifespan.
6) The gas when burned does not explode but implodes. “An intriguing situation arises when a volume of Brown’s Gas is detonated because the contraction in that volume which occurs is revolutionary in character. Of an order of 1,860:1, the contraction can be defined as an implosion, as opposed to an explosion.” 1979
7) When heating water in an iron basin using a torch if applied only to the water barely raises its temperature even after long exposure. The flame applied to the bottom of the basin raises the temperature of the metal so high, and so instantly, that the water boils away almost in the blink of an eye. When directed at a brick under the surface of the water, however, the flame can heat the brick as easily as though the brick was not water covered.
8) Steel, after treatment with the flame, is much more impervious to rust and before treatment.
9) The flame can fuse plastic to titantium…
## Super Hydrated Water for Health: http://www.brownsgas.com/page/page/3353689.htm
When Brown’s Gas is bubbled through clean water, the water absorbs oxygen and hydrogen.
We think there is an additional energy (electrical in nature) added to the water as well. We find the drinking resulting enhanced, oxygenated and hydrated water to bring us alert like drinking a cup of coffee, without the side effects.
Many people know that oxygenated water is healthful. There are many companies selling water that has had oxygen added to it.
What is generally unknown is that water is even more healthful when hydrogen is added to it. Drinking water is called hydrating the body. An astonishing fact is that chlorinated water, coffee, carbonated and sweetened fluids are generally dehydrating. Most of the diseases known to mankind (including aging) can be prevented or mitigated by hydrating the body.
Every test of brown’s gas enhanced water shows it to be super hydrating, far superior to regular water (as much as 10 times).
Enhanced water is an essential key to keeping an active youthful body as the years go by. We have reason to believe this water enhances every chemical process in the body,making a super immune system and mitigating the symptoms of aging, mostly caused by dehydration.