### More PULSED ELECTROLYSIS Systems : (page created at November 2007 Update)
## 2005, A novel method of hydrogen generation by water electrolysis using an ultra-short-pulse power supply, Naohiro Shimizu and al. from ‘A novel method of hydrogen generation by water electrolysis using.pdf’ at http://my.opera.com/h2earth/blog/cybrarium
Journal of Applied Electrochemistry (2006) 36:419-423, Copyright Springer 2005 ; Received 21 June 2005; accepted in revised form 24 October 2005.
by NAOHIRO SHIMIZU, SOUZABURO HOTTA, TAKAYUKI SEKIYA and OSAMU ODA ; NGK Insulators, Ltd., 2-56 Suda-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya, 467-8530, Japan.
Keywords: hydrogen generation, inductive energy storage circuit, static induction thyristor, ultra-short pulse, water electrolysis.
# Abstract: A novel method of hydrogen generation by water electrolysis using ultra-short-pulse power supply is demonstrated.
The ultra-short-pulse power supply consists of a static induction thyristor (SIThy) and a specific circuit which is called the inductive energy storage (IES) circuit. It was found that by using an ultra-short pulse with the width of 300ns, electrolysis takes place with a mechanism dominated by electron transfer, which is different from the conventional diffusion limiting process in DC electrolysis.
# Introduction: It is possible to generate hydrogen by conventional DC water electrolysis, but this is undesirable for enviromental reasons if the electrical energy for the electrolysis is produced in thermal power stations from fossil fuel because of the generation of carbon dioxide. Fuel cells are promising and various systems are being studied worldwide. The generation of carbon dioxide during hydrogen generation through natural gas for fuel cells can be reduced compared with thermal power stations, but carbon dioxide is still generated. Hydrogen generation by photo-catalysis is preferable but the process efficiency is still very low for practical applications.
Recently, water electrolysis has been reconsidered as a promising method for hydrogen generation since the cost of electricity is decreasing, mainly as a result of wind-generated power. Hydroelectricity and nuclear power can be also used for water electrolysis without generation of carbon dioxide. Even though the electricity cost is falling, it is known that the plant cost for water electrolysis by DC power still dominates a large part of the hydrogen production cost. It is therefore desirable to find a new method of generating hydrogen from water at lower cost. In the present work, we have examined for the first time the applicability of an ultra-short-pulse power supply for water electrolysis.
# Principle: In the conventional DC electrolysis of water, hydrogen is generated as a result of electron transfer from the cathode electrode to adsorbed hydrogen ions on the electrode surface. This electrolysis occurs when the applied voltage between the anode and the cathode exceeds the water decomposition voltage of about 1.6V, the sum of the theoretical decomposition voltage of 1.23V at room temperature and the overvoltage of about 0.4V depending on electrode materials and other factors. DC electrolysis is a diffusion limited process and the current flow in water is determined by the diffusion coefficient of ions. It is therefore difficult to increase the input power for a constant volume electrochemical cell without reduction in electrolysis efficiency.
We have applied an ultra-short pulsed power supply based on a static induction thyristor (SIThy), invented by Nishizawa et al. [2,3] and developed by Shimizu et al. [4,5], and an inductive energy storage (IES) circuit invented and developed by Iida et al. [6,7] and applied in several ways by Jiang et al. . SIThys are Si devices with special structures for high power pulse generation and IES circuits are small-scaled circuits based on induction storage instead of conventional capacitor storage in order to use SIThys. We have applied SI thyristors developed in our laboratory to water electrolysis and found that water electrolysis occurs by a different mechanism from the conventional DC one.
When the ultra-short pulse voltage of less than seceral microseconds is applied to a water electrolysis bath, the voltage application is so fast neither the electric double layer nor the diffusion layer can be stably formed in the vicinity of electrodes.
The pulse width which is necessary for electrolysis without formation of the diffusion layer is estimated  to be:
Here, Del.t is the pulse width (s), D the diffusion coefficient (cm2 s-1), Xad the density of hydrogen ions on the cathode electrode (cm-2) and X (cm-3) is the concentration of hydrogen ions in the solution. This equation was simply calculated under the assumption that the total amount of adsorbed ions, Xad, is equal to the diffusion layer thickness d (cm) multiplied by X, and d must be larger than the diffusion length (4D Delt.t)1/2 during the pulse application, considering that the pulse application duration must be shorter than the time necessary to fill the diffusion layer with hydrogen ions. From this equation, taking as D=2.3×10-5 cm2 s-1 for proton diffusion coefficient , X=6×1020 cm-3 for 1M for KOH solution and Xad=1015 cm-2 for platinum metal surface, the pulse width is estimated to be about 3 microsecond. This means that electrolysis occurs without forming the diffusion layer in the present work since the pulse width is one tenth of this critical 3 microsec.. It is also known that the time necessary for the formation of the stable electrical double layer is of the order of several tens of milliseconds . It is therefore evident that the stable electrical double layer is not formed during the present ultra-short pulse application. Since an electric field as high as 2.6-47V cm-1 can be applied in the present work, the lack of formation of the stable electric double layer means that hydrogen ions can be moved faster than in conventional DC electrolysis. These different mechanisms that arise via ultra-short pulse application, leading to the absence of the diffusion layer and the stable electrical double layer, mau open the possibility of high capacity water electrolysis.
# Experimental: In order to examine the possibility of water electrolysis by ultra-short pulses, 3.41 of 1M KOH solution were put in an electrolysis bath. 3.3x9cm2 platinum plates were used as the anode and cathode. The distance between electrodes was set as 3 cm. The solution temperature was kept at 293 +-2 K during the experiment. A conventional DC power supply and an ultra-short pulse power supply were used for comparison. The ultra-short pulse power supply consisted of the IES circuit with a SIThy as shown in Figure1. Ultra-short pulses with a voltage pulse-width of about 300ns, with the secondary peak voltage rangin from 7.9 to 140V were applied to the electrochemical bath with the frequency of 2-25 kHz. The input power was changed by increasing the pulse frequency.
In the IES circuit (Figure1), the gate of the SIThy is connected to the anode through a diode. When the FET (Field Effect Transistor) is switched on, the current through the inductive coil (L1) gradually increases. When the FET is switched off at a certain current level, the current flow is instantly switched off and the inverse voltage Vp1 is induced through the coil (L1). This IES circuit is the simplest and most compact one yet reported for generating ultra-short pulses [6-8].
Fig.1. Ultra-short pulsed power supply circuit for water electrolysis based on the inductive energy storage (IES) circuit [6-7] with a static induction thyristor (SIThy).
In the case of water electrolysis using the above ultra-short pulse power, the water bath electrodes are connected to the secondary reactance L2 as seen in Figure1. The pulsed voltage Vp2 is induced in the secondary reactance L2, synchronized with the pulsed voltage Vp1 as seen in Figure2. In the first stage, when this secondary pulsed voltage is applied to the electrodes in the water bath, the bath acts as a quasi-capacitor since the pulse width is too short for ions in the bath to cause a current through the bath. This gives a very short pulsed current Ip2 in the circuit through the secondary coil (L2). This current is too rapid to be seen in the figure. The water bath is not a real capacitor since all electrons collected at the cathode are transferred to hydrogen ions and high voltage does not remain as in the case of conventional capacitors. After this pulsed voltage had been applied to the electrolysis bath, in the second stage, the current I2 flows through the circuit. This current flows very slowly as seen in the figure with several tens microseconds. Since the application of thepulsed voltage Vp2 was already terminated, this current flow I2 may not be due to electron transfer to hydrogen ions but ion transport in the bath, thus compensating the lack of hydrogen ions in the vicinity of the cathode electrode.
# Results and discussion: The hydrogen generation rate and its efficiency are plotted as a function of the input power between the electrodes in Figure3. In the case of DC power electrolysis, when the applied voltage is increased, the current increases so that hydrogen generation rate increases, but the efficiency compared with the ideal generation rate decreases from 40% at 2.2V to 8% at 12.6V. Here, the ideal generation rate was calculated from thermodynamical data , for the thermodynamical energy for hydrogen to be converted to room temperature water. The decrease in efficiency can be explained because an electron with high energy can only reduce one hydrogen ion so that the difference between the applied voltage and the decomposition voltage is dissipated as heat. Since the current itself is also increased by increasing the applied voltage, electrons which are not used for hydrogen reduction are also dissipated as heat.
Contrary to the case of DC power electrolysis, ultra-short power electrolysis shows a quite different behaviour. As seen in Figure3(a), in the case of DC electrolysis, the hydrogen generation rate was not proportional to the input power. It deviates from the ideal line. The hydrogen generation efficiency is calculated as the ratio of the real generation rate to the ideal hydrogen generation rate and it can be seen in Figure3(b) that the efficiency is largely decreased in the case of DC electrolysis. This decrease is mainly because the energy of most electrons is dissipated as heat.
In the case of pulse power, it is seen in Figure3(a) that the hydrogen generation rate is increased as the peak voltage is decreased. It should be noted, however, that the hydrogen generation rate increases as a function of the input power. This behaviour is quite different from the case of DC electrolysis. When the input power is increased by increasing the pulse frequency, the efficiency was not decreased in the case of high peak voltages, and was increased in the case of low peak voltages as seen in Figure3(b). This behaviour is contrary to the case of DC power. This increase of the efficiency for the case of low peak voltage may be because the energy dissipation is decreased since each electron has lower energy and the pulse waveform is sharper for low peak voltages. For these reasons, power can be efficiently consumed for electrolysis. This fact implies that the ultra-short power electrolysis is a promising method in which the power application can be increased even with an increase in electrolysis efficiency.
In the case of DC power, the electric field is always present. The electrical double layer is also present and the diffusion layer always exist. The current flow is therefore determined by the diffusion of ions with a driving force of ion concentration difference. When the applied voltage is increased, the efficiency decreases. In the cse of DC power, the power applicable for a certain volume of the electrolysis bath is therefore limited.
Fig.2. A typical example of pulse waveforms for the first and second stages. In the first stage, an ultra-short pulse with the width of about 300ns is applied. In the second stage, the current flows slowly.
Fig.3. Hydrogen generation rate (a) and its efficiency (b) as a function of the input power. In the case of pulsed power, various circuits with different voltage (Vp2), current (I2max) and frequency ((i)-(iv)) have been compared. The input power is the integration of the secondary voltage and current multiplied by the frequency. The ideal line was calculated from the thermodynamical energy for hydrogen to be converted to room temperature water. Hydrogen generation efficiencies in (b) were calculated as the hydrogen generation rate divided by the ideal hydrogen generation rate at the same input power.
In the case of ultra-short pulsed power, the electric field is applied for only a very short time less than several microseconds which is much shorter than the time necessary for the formation of the constant electric double layer. By the application of the ultra-short pulse, electrons are collected on the surface of the cathode electrode as in a capacitor. The electrons gathered however are quickly transferred to hydrogen ions for hydrogen generation so that electrons do not remain in the electrode as in a conventional capacitor. After this electron transfer, the current I2 flows slowly as shown in Figure2, probably due to the ion diffusion in the electrolysis bath.
From the above considerations, it can be concluded that the electrolysis mechanism for ultra-short pulse power is very different from that of DC electrolysis. DC electrolysis is based on electrical double layer formation and is a diffusion-limited process, while ultra-short pulse power electrolysis is based on the strong electric field application and the electron transfer limited process. This difference seems to be very important for the practical and industrial application of ultra-short power electrolysis since the electrolysis power can be increased without decreasing the efficiency.
# Conclusion: We have shown in this preliminary work how an ultra-short power supply, consisting of a SIThy and an IES circuit, can be applied to water electrolysis for hydrogen generation. It has been found that an ultra-short pulse of about 300ns could generate hydrogen gas. It was also found that power could be increased without decreasing the electrolysis efficiency. The present results point to the possibility that water electrolysis by ultra-short pulsed power occurs under the electron transfer-rate limiting mechanism, which is different from the conventional diffusion-limiting mechanism in DC power electrolysis.
# Ackonledgements: We thanks Messrs S. Ohno and T. Inaba for their encouragement of this work, Mrs K. Matsuhiro, Y. Imanishi and S. Tange for their helpful discussion, and Mr M. Imaeda for his experimental help.
1 – T. Watanabe and S.Nakamura, Introduction to Electrochemistry: Chemistry of Electron Transport (Japan Chemical Society, 1996)
2 – J. Nishizawa, T. Teriyaki and J. Shibata, Res. Inst. Electrical Comm. Tohoku Univ. Tech. Rep., RIEC TR-36 (1973) 1.
3 – J. Nishizawa, T. Teriyaki and J. Shibata, IEEE Trans. Electron Dev., ED-22 (1975) 185.
4 – N. Shimizu, K.-S. Lee, M. Yuri, Y. Ikeda and K. Murdock, Proc. 10th Symp. Static Induct. Dev., SSID-97-6 (1997) 29.
5 – R. Hironaka, M. Watanabe, E. Hotta, A. Okino, M. Maeyama, K.-C. Ko and N. Shimizu, IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 28 (2000) 1524.
6 – K. Iida and T. Sakuma, Proc. 15th Symp. Static Induct. Dev., SSID-02-9 (2002) 45.
7 – N. Shimizu, T. Sekiya, K. Iida, Y. Imanishi, M. Kimura and J. Nishizawa, Proc. Int. Symp. Power Silicon. Dev. (ISPSD) P-30 (2004) 281.
8 – W. Jiang, K. Yatsui, K. Takayama, M. Akemoto, E. Nakayama, N. Shimizu, A. Tokuchi, S. Rukin, V. Tarasenko and A. Pachenko, Proc. IEEE 92 (2004) 1180.
9 – O. Oda and N. Shimizu, Japan Patent Pending, 2004-223595.
10 – O. Kubaschewski, E.L. Evans and C.B. Alcock, Metallurgical Thermochemistry (Pergamon Press, 1967).
## 1984, Tay-Hee Hau, Korea,US4427512A1 “WATER DECOMPOSITION METHOD AND DEVICE USING IONIZATION BY COLLISION” , from Website update for June/July 2006 at: http://www.waterfuelcell.org/UpdatePage.html
Abstract: This invention relates to the decomposition of water into oxygen and hydrogen by the effect of ionization by collision among the water molecules. Water of liquid dielectric characteristics is contained within a solid dielectric container having higher dielectric constant relative to that of the water, the solid dielectric also having thermostability. A high voltage is then applied to the solid dielectric, creating a strong enough electric field, exceeding the covalent bond of the liquid dielectric, to decompose the water, while the solid dielectric container maintains its stability.
This is a continuation of application Ser. No. 167,147 field July 8, 1980, now adandoned.
# Background of the invention: Until now we have used the electrochemical reaction in electrolysis, in which the ions in the electrolyte flow to the opposite electrode to decompose the electrolyte and make pure metals deposition on the surface of the electrode when the electrode is put into the electrolyte and the direct current is changed with.
In addition, in the case of non-electrolyte the electrolysis does not happen though equipping the dielectric with the electrode. And if the higher voltage is given to the dielectric than the withstanding voltage strength of the dielectric, the electrolyte is broken down in the dielectric and the large quantity of electric current is flowed between the electrodes.
We have only considered the prevention of the dielectric breakdown because when this dielectric breakdown happens, the molecule of the dielectric are often decomposed, but this dielectric and electrical machinery become useless.
# Description of the prior art: USP 3,674,676 about the electrode used in above electrolysis. The cathode covered with the diaphragm is used at a regular interval from the neighboring anode which is made by using titanium plate or expanded metal or platinum group. And according to West-Germany Pat. 72/12225 is known to use asbestos diaphragm with perfluoro ethylen or trifluoro ethylene sulfon acid having positive ion exchangeability. But according to above patents, they have the weak point that they lose exchange-ability and need much expenditure making the diaphragm
# Summary of the invention: It is an object of the present invention to provide the water decomposition method using ionization by collision, and another object of the invention is to provide the water decomposition device.
The characteristic of this invention is to decompose oxygen(O2) and hydrogen(H2) from the water molecules by causing ionization by collision, making complex dielectric layer filled with liquid dielectric, that is, water between the solid dielectric plate having the high dielectric constant and withstanding voltage strength, and by causing strong electric field strength over the withstanding voltage strength in liquid dielectric having relatively low dielectric constant in comparison with the solid dielectric.
Then as low electric field strength short of the loithstanding voltage strength is formed at both side of the liquid dielectric and the solid dielectric restrain much electric discharge current to flow between the electrodes keeping stable state, the water continuously receives the strong electric field strength, and therefore water-molecules are decomposed.
It the two kinds of dielectric which are differing in dielectric constant comprise 3 layer, that is, we put two same electric plate and put another dielectric between them, the dielectric which has high dielectric constant receives low electric field strength, and high electric field strength is formed at the low dielectric of low dielectric constant. Then the dielectric intruded receives stronger electric field strength than both side of the dielectrics.
When the electric field strength exceeds the withstanding voltage strength of its own, the molecules of the liquid dielectric is decomposed by ionization by collision, the dielectric breakdown happens and then both side of the dielectric layer can be in stable state because it receives weak electric field strength.
Therefore in the case of passing strong voltage to the complex dielectric layer, the strong electric field strength can be formed at a layer and the molecules of the liquid dielectric can be decomposed by the ionization by collision. The invention is illustrated according to the appended figures.
# Brief description of the drawings:
Fig.1: a cross section for illustration of this invention.
Fig.2: a side-view.
Fig.3: a cross section for the illustration of a many-step decomposition device as an example.
Fig.4: a side-view illustration of Fig.3.
# Detailed description of the preferred embodiments: From the Fig.1 and Fig.2, the solid dielectric (D1) forms ‘U’, the middle interval (d2) is filled with liquid dielectric and the both sides of the solid dielectric (D1) has the electrode.
If the strong voltage (V) for example 20kV-60kV is given to such electrodes, the electric field strength satisfies these equations.
The withstanding voltage strength of the solid dielectric (D1) V.kV/m, the dielectric constant of the solid dielectric: e1, the electric field strength of the solid dielectric: E1, the interval of the solid dielectric: d1, the with-standing voltage strength of the liquid dielectric (D2): V2 kV/m, the dielectric constant of the liquid dielectric: e2, the electric field strength of the liquid dielectric: E2, the intervalof the liquid dielectric: d2, the ratio of the two dielectrics: e2/e1=er.
As we can know from the above equations, if er, the ratio of the two dielectrics, is much smaller than 1, low electric field strength is formed in the solid dielectric (D1) in comparison with the liquid dielectric (D2).
Reversely if strong electric field strength is formed in the dielectric (D2) and the electric field strength exceeds the withstanding voltage strength of its own, the dielectric breakdown, that is, ionization by collision happens, and if it receives the electric field strength lower than the withstanding voltage strength of its own, it becomes the stable state. Accordingly to above method, the water (H2O), liquid dielectric, can be decomposed with hydrogen and oxygen.
Now ‘U’, which we can see from Fig.1 and Fig.2, is made of solid dielectric of the type of ceramics which has exceedingly high relative dielectric constant in comparison with 80 and can resist high withstanding voltage strength and high temperature. If we make complex dielectric layer which is filled with water in the middle interval (d2) and tens of thousand voltage is flowed into the electrode (p), then, as the relative dielectric constant becomes er/1 by the equation (1) and (2), the water receives electric field strength of its own and the molecules of the water are decomposed into hydrogen and oxygen by the ionization by collision.
As both sides of the solid dielectric receive weak electric field strength short of the withstanding voltage strength of its own and restrain electric discharge current to flow in the stable state, water is continuously decomposed by receiving the strong electric field strength.
This phenomena can happen on the condition that relative dielectric constant of the solid dielectric is tens of times or hundreds of times as high as that of the water, that is, erusing the theory of the distributive electric field strength of the complex dielectric layer and ionization by collision of the dielectric.
As illustrated in Fig.4, by installing gas-gathering-house (H) on the upper part of the complex of dielectric layers, we can separate the hydrogen and the oxygen by liquefaction or can use the mixed gases as it is. Above method is excellent in that it does not need other additions in comparison with electrolysis and the electrode is little coated from the electric discharge current and needs no treatment.
According to the example, the relative dielectric constant of the ceramics, solid dielectric; E1=3,500. the thickness of the dielectric layer; D1=5mm, the withstanding voltage strength (V1); V1=over 54 kV/mm. The thickness of the liquid dielectric layer filled with water; d2=2mm.
Like Fig.1 and Fig.2, we made complex dielectric layer and the voltage of 50kV flowed into the electrode (p) installed and both sides of the solid dielectric (D1) received the electric field strength E1=0.52 kV/mm and it became in stable state because it is short of the withstanding electric field strength E2=22.42 kV/mm and the ionization by collision happened and was decomposed in hydrogen and oxygen. Then, as 7.2 cc of water was decomposed, the mixing oxygen and hydrogen gas was collected.
What is claimed is: 1/ A water decomposition method utilizing ionization by collision, said method comprising the steps of:
provinding a solid dielectric container formed from a material having a substantially higher dielectric constant than that of water and capable of withstanding voltages greater than about 20kV without electrical or physical breakdown, said container having a liquid- receiving space;
positioning a pair of electrodes on opposite sides of the outside of said liquid-receiving space of said container;
filling the liquid-receiving space of said solid dielectric container with water characterized by a covalent bond;
applying a continuous voltage greater than about 20kV to said solid dielectric container and across said electrodes to subject said water to a strong electric field strength exceeding the covalent bond strength thereof;
wherein said water is decomposed continually, by ionization by collision, into hydrogen and oxygen for so long as the voltage is applied to said electrodes;
collecting the hydrogen and oxygen gases that are evolved; and
continuously refilling said liquid-receiving space with water to maintain a predetermined quantity of water therein as decomposition occurs.
2/ The method of claim 1, wherein the solid dielectric container is made of ceramic.
3/ THe method of claim 1, wherein said strong electric field strength is in the range 20kV/mm – 60kV/mm
4/ The method of claim 1, wherein said strong electric field strength is greater than about 50kV/mm
5/ The method of claim 1, wherein said solid dielectric container comprises two parallel dielectric slabs having a dielectric constant greater than ten times that of water.
6/ The method of claim 5, wherein said liquid dielectric comprises pure water.
End of integral transcription. Mistakes in english language are from the original document.
## 2007, Hydrogen and oxygen ionisation, from the excellent waterfuelcell.org forum, http://waterfuelcell.org/phpBB2/viewtopic.php?t=405&start=0&postdays=0&postorder=asc&highlight=
Posted by ‘PULSED)ReverseH/Ofuelcell’ : Sat May 12, 2007 11:10 pm ; Post subject: Hydrogen and oxygen ionisation
Hydrogen and oxygen ionisation This may be one way the Water fuel cell (Satn Meyer’s one) breaks the covalent bonding of the water molecule. The two electrons covalently bonding the hydrogen to the oxygen are stripped of when the oxygen is ionised and looses four electrons, now because the oxygen atom needs another electron it takes it from the much weaker hydrogen atom, when it dose this the hydrogen looses its electron to the much stronger oxygen atom. The reason the oxygen is stronger then the hydrogen is because the hydrogen atom has only one proton whereas the oxygen atom has eight, so the oxygen has a stronger electrical charge. When the oxygen atom takes the hydrogens electron it breaks the covalent bond (remember we are only doing this with voltage). The hydrogen electron is the thing that is holding the water molecule together, so when the oxygen atom takes the hydrogen atoms electron it is breaking the covalent bond. The oxygen normally gets its electrons from amp flow, that would be the point where the high currant would flow, but because we are now restricting electron flow the oxygen atom takes the electrons from the hydrogen atom, this breaks the covalent bond.
Thanks, Sukhoi Company (JSC) –
If the world should blow itself up, the last audible voice would be that of an expert saying it can’t be done.
## 1978, Shigeta HASEBE, USP 4,105,528,Apparatus for Decomposition of Aqueous Liquid from ‘DeComp_Magnetic Vortex_Patent 4105528.pdf’ at http://my.opera.com/h2earth/blog/cybrarium
# Abstract: A n apparatus for decomposition of liquid in which vortical negative and positive electrodes are arranged in a closed relation but in short free positions and these two electrodes are supplied with a power through external terminals and the electrolyte is placed to flow between the negative and positive electrodes for the electrolysis between two electrodes under the function of the potential magnetic field formed by the coil current which is generated by the electrodes with active movement of an electrolytic ion so that the electrolysis of water takes place smoothly under the spin functions of the atom and electron.
# Background and Summary of the Invention: This invention relates to an apparatus for decomposition of liquid wherein an electrolyte in flow is subjected to an electrolysis for production of gases.
As is well known, water is composed of a hydrogen atom and an oxygen atom. When water is sufficiently magnetized, each constitutive atom is also weakly magnetized to rotate the elementary particule in a particular direction. This rotation of the elementary particule is generally called as ‘spin’. That is, the spin function is caused by an electron, atomic nucleous, atom and even by the molecule. When a negative electrode is immersed in the electrolyte (NaOH solution) for applying a voltage thereto to cause the elementary particule to react with the electric field, the coupling state of the hydrogen with the oxygen is varried and the electrolysis is facilitated under the function of spin.
In accordance with the present invention, vortical negative and positive electrodes are arranged in a closed relation but in short free positions and these two electrodes are supplied with a power through external terminals and the electrolyte is placed to flow between the negative and positive electrodes. Thus, the electrolyte is subjected to the electrolysis between two electrodes under the function of the potential magnetic field formed by the coil current which is generated by the electrodes with active movement of an electrolytic ion (Na+, OH-) so that the electrolysis of water takes place smoothly under the spin functions of the atom and electron.
It has been confirmed that the rate of the electrolysis of water according to the invented process is approximately 10 or more times (approximately 20 times on calculation) as that of the conventional electrolysis.
The structural design of electrolytic cell in accordance with the invented system is characterized in that the electrolyte flowing through the supply ports provided at the lower portion of the electrolytic cell is subjected to the potential magnetic field in the presence of the permanent magnet and that the electrodes for electrolysis is subjected to the more potential magnetic and electric fields to obtain a sufficient spin effect.
It is, therefore, a general object of the invention to provide a novel apparatus for decomposition of liquid in which an electrolyte (NaOH) solution is subjected to magnetic field to carry out an electrolysis under the function of the spin of an element constituting water molecule thereby to produce a great amount of gas with less consumption of electric energy.
A principal object of the invention is to provide an apparatus for decomposition of liquid including a liquid circulating system for separation of gas and liquid in which positive and negative vortical electrodes are arranged to traverse a flow path of liquid and said vortical electrodes at their opposite ends being arranged with magnetic materials to apply a predetermined voltage for a liquid passing through a magnetic field by said positive and negative cortical electrodes thereby to promote generation and separation of cation and anion with a high efficiency in production of a large quantity of gases by way of an electrolysis of liquid.
Others objects and advantages of the present invention will become apparent as the detailed description thereof proceeds.
# Brief description of the drawings: The invention will be described more in detail in the following with reference to the accompnying drawings, wherein:
Fig.1 is a partially cross-sectional schematic elevation of an apparatus in accordance with the invention;
Fig.2 is a perspective view of electrodes arranged in accordance with the invention; and
Fig.3 is a plan view of electrodes with magnetic materials.
# Description of the preferred embodiment: In Fig.1, an electrolytic cell 10, a gas-liquid separation tank 12 and a gas washing tank 14 are vertically arranged in juxtaposition with a location of the electrolytic cell 10 in a little lower level than the others.
These cell 10 and tanks 12, 14 are communicated with each other through a delivery pipe 16 which communicates the top of the electrolytic cell 10 with the middle portion of the gas-liquid separation tank 12, a feed-back pipe 18 provided with a pump 20, which communicates the bottom portion of the gas-liquid separation tank 12 with the bottom portion of the electrolytic cell 10, and a conduit 22, which is extended from the top portion of the gas-liquid separation tank 12 through a valve 24 into the bottom portion of the gas washing tank 14. To the top portion of the gas washing tank 14 is connected a drain pipe 26 through a valve 28.
In the electrolytic cell 10, positive and negative vortical electrodes 30 of diameters as defined in accordance with an internal diameter of the electrolytic cell 10 are arranged coaxially, and at upper and lower positions of the vortical electrode 30 are arranged magnet rings 32 and 34 of ferrite and the like, of which positive and negative magnetic poles are confronted therein so that a magnetic field generated is orthogonal to the axis of the electrolytic cell.
The vortical electrodes 30 are composed of two metal strips 36 which are wound into vortical shapes with a plurality of cylindrical insulating spacers 38 of rubber and the like interposed therebetween in attachment to the surface of the metal strips 36.
From the metal strips 336 are withdrawn lead wires 40, which are in turn connected respectively to positive or negative electrode terminals provided int he inner wall of the electrolytic cell.
The electrolytic cell 10 and the gas-liquid separation tank 12 are filled with a electrolyte 44 which may be circulated by the pump 20 whereas the gas washing tank 14 is filled with a washing liquid 46 to such a preferred level that gases gushing out of the conduit 22 is well washed.
The apparatus in accordance with the present invention may be well applicable to an electrolysis of flowing water for production of hydrogen gas and oxygen gas at a high efficiency. That is to say, the electrolytic cell 10 and the gas-liquid separation tank 12 are filled with the electrolyte 44 which is constrained by operation of the pump 20 to flow through a magnetic field in an annular path in which positive and negative magnetic poles N, S of the magnets 32 and 34 are confronted and through the metal plates 36 of the vortical electrode 30 to impart an orientation to an electrical migration of cation and anion with increased gas separation rate and promotion of electrolysis.
Especially, the flowing oxygen gas serves to facilitate a gasification as it has a magnetic property of variable under an influence of the magnetic field. The vortical electrodes 30 in accordance with the invention brings a remarkable increasement in the electrolytic rate since a hydraulic diameter in a space between metal strips of the electrode 30 is reduced and hence the flow velocity in the space is increased so that a positive convection in the gap serves to cause turbulence and accordingly gasified bubbles produced by an electrolysis and attached to the surface of the electrode 30 are removed instantly in replacement by fresh ions.
The vortical construction of positive and negative metal strips alternately opposing to each other enables a desired reduction in bulk of the cell, while increasing a contacting area with the electrolyte 44 with relatively short migration distance of ions for promotion of gasification. On the other hand, insulating spacers 38 interposed between the positive and negative metal strips 36 serves to develope desired turbulence of the electrolyte passing through the space.
The liquid circulating system for separation of gas and liquid requires no other driving unit except the circulation pump 20 to achieve separation of gas and liquid by utilizing differences in water heads developed among the cell 10 and the tanks 12 and 14. In other words, a flow of gas-liquid mixture supplied from electrolytic cell 10 is fed into the gas-liquid separation tank 12 where due to the difference in buoyancy of gases and liquid, gas rises and is fed into the gas washing tank 14 whereas the liquid goes down and is returned again to the electrolytic cell 10. The washing tank 14 is filled with convenient washing liquid 46 so that gases gushing out of conduit 22 are washed and fed into the drain pipe 26. Thus, the apparatus may be constructed at reduced cost without complexity.
As hereinbefore described, the magnets 32 and 34 provide positive and negative magnetic poles N, S which are confronted in the annular wall for facilitating an alignment between the cross section of the flow-path of the liquid and the annular portion of the magnets 32, 34 and a generation of a magnetic field in a direction perpendicular to that of the liquid flow so that the liquid is ensured to flow in the magnetic field.
(MDG nov07: 116cc of Hydroxy per sec. = 417 L/hour (7 L/mn) for 30Ah x 2.8V= 84Wh ; That’s 5 Liter of Hydroxy per Wh 0.2Wh per liter !!! AMAZING EFFICIENCY.
This concept produced 15 times more Hydroxy gas than our already well efficient 6 serie-cells car electrolyzer straight DC from alternator !
He his using 2.8V, so coupling 5 of his cells in series (5 x 2.8 = 14V) and using a car alternator, for 30A (total power consumption 30A x 14V = 420Watts), you will get an amazing amount of 5 x 7 = 35 L/mn of Hydroxy !)
With our 6 cells series we are getting 3Wh/L (1 L/mn for 15A) and we were already very proud … This design is ways over Faraday’s maximum = OVERUNITY)
The theoretical amount of generation of hydrogen and oxygen by the electrolysis in accordance with the present system are mentionned below. Hydrogen H2 – 1 gram = 11.2 l (0 deg. C at 1 atm). Oxygen O2 – 8 gram = 5.6 l (O deg. C at 1 atm).
However, the experimental daata have showed the following facts:
Even by correction at the room temperature of 20 deg.C, the rate of generation over 20 times could be obtained.
As hereinbefore fully described in accordance with the invention generation and separation of cation and anion in a flowing liquid is facilitated at a high efficiency of gas production rate by the electrolysis.
While certain preferred embodiments of the invention have been illustrated by way of example in the drawings and particularly described, it will be understood that various modifications may be made in the constructions and that the invention is no way limited to the embodiments shown.
# What I claim is: 1/ Apparatus fro the decomposition of aqueous liquid whereby gas is formed comprising a cell, having an inlet at one end and an outlet at the other, positive and negative electrodes mounted within said cell between said inlet and outlet connected to a source of elecctric current, said electrodes being wound about each other in substantially coaxial helices to form a vortex transverse to the flow of liquid, and magnetic means mounted with said cell at each of the axial ends of said electrodes.
2/ The apparatus according to claim 1, wherein said inlet and outlet meansare at axial ends of said electrodes.
3/ The apparatus according to claim 2, including a gas-liquid separation tank and a gas-washing tank each vertically arranged in juxtaposition, conduit means connecting the top of the cell with the mid-portion of the gas-liquid separation tank, a feed-back conduit connecting the bottom end of the gas-liquid separation tank with said pump, a conduit connecting the top end of the gas-liquid separation tank and the lower portion of the gas-washing tank, a valve inserted in said latter conduit and a drain pipe connected to the top end of the gas-washing tank for exhaust of the gas.
4/ The apparatus according to claim 1, including a pump at the inlet for feeding the liquid under pressure through said cell.
5/ The apparatus according to claim 1, wherein each of said electrodes is formed of at least one sheet of metallic material, each electrode being provided with a lead wire secured to the cell, and having contact means extending through the wall thereof.
6/ The apparatus according to claim 1 including insulating spaces interposed between said electrodes.
7/ The apparatus according to claim 1, wherein said magnetic means comprise annular members having diametrically opposed positive and negative poles lying orthogonal to the flow of liquid.
End of full transcription of the patent.
## N.R. SEIDMAN, Entropic Repercussion of Water-Dielectric Breakdown, Water Fuel LLC, Bayside, New York 11360, USA, from ‘SeidmanVoltageBreakdown.pdf’ available at http://my.opera.com/h2earth/blog/cybrarium
Upon achieving the voltage magnitude threshold associated with water-dielectric breakdown, a path of molecules is ionized between the negative and positive capacitor plates. After molecular ionization, an alternating positive negative ionic arrangement emerges where the negatively charged capacitor plate is followed by a positive ion then a negative ion in continuing repetition until the path is concluded by the positively charged capacitor plate; the arrangement of the ions is governed by an attempt to achieve charge neutrality. The newly established path of conductivity allows the voltage stored in the capacitor to discharge via the creation of a current flow through said path. In addition to the energy (Ein) delivered by the discharging of the capacitor, this publication suggested that a net kinetic energy (Ek) results from the alignment of the ions associated with water-dielectric breakdown conditions.
I. Introduction: The empirical parameters of water-dielectric breakdown have been thoroughly investigated throughout recently scientific history. Most recent it has been investigated by Sandia National Laboratories . Their investigations have produced an empirical equation (1) specific devised for capacitors with infinite area.
EpTeff0.330+-0.026 = 0.135+-0.009 (1)
In equation (1), Ep = Vp / d, where Ep is has units of MV/cm, Vp is the peak voltage across the capacitor with units of megavolts (MV), and d is the distance between the capacitor plates with units of centimeters (cm). Teff is a temporal parameter involving the pulse width of the applied voltage signal; this variable is measured in units of microseconds (us).
In the research by Sandia National Laboratories  there was a total of 25 point-plane measurements taken and tabulated for the primary purpose of generating equation (1). Additional analysis of the 25 point-plane measurements has produced equation (2), and unlike equation (1), equation (2) has an additional parameter d, which is a variable representing the distance between capacitor plates. The variable d is measured in centimeters (cm).
EpTeff0.360+-0.053 d0.030+-0.077 = 0.230 (2)
The research of Sandia National Laboratories , that produced equation (1) and (2), was designed to supersede equation (3) produced by Eilbert and Lupton  for systems assuming infinite area capacitors. Equation (3) is an empirical relationship specifically involving a finite area capacitor.
EpTeff1/3 A0.058 = 0.230 (3)
Another empirical equation (4) specific to a finite area capacitor has been created by (AWRE) at Aldermaston, England [3, 4, 5, 6], and published in References [5, 6].
EpTeff1/3 A1/10 = 0.3 (4)
Equations (1), (2), (3), and (4) are the result of a century of research and investigation into the magnitude of parameters necessary to induce water-dielectric breakdown. Equation (1) and (2) were specifically created for the design and construction of water based electrical insulation systems. Equation (3), and (4) are more general and have been created for other purposes, although have been included in this publication to especially highlight the due diligence of past researchers to document the empirical parameters necessary to induce water-dielectric breakdown.
As a result of the latter due diligence, established in equations (1), (2), (3), and (4), it is now possible to investigate the subsequent reaction ensuing after the occurrence of waterdielectric breakdown. This publication deals with a potential entropic repercussion of waterdielectric breakdown, and the theorized kinetic energy (Ek) that emerges from ionic alignment.
II. Theory: Dielectric breakdown results in the formation of positively charged and negatively charged ions. These positive and negative charges arrange in an alternating fashion connecting the negative capacitor plate to the positive capacitor plate in an attempt to maintain net charge neutrality. The alternating charges form a conductive path, capable of propagating electric current, effectively allowing the discharge of the voltage stored in the capacitor beginning at the instant of dielectric breakdown. This newly established conductive path is well organized, in a relatively linear fashion, such that a low state of entropy occurs. Associated with a low state of entropy is a high molecular kinetic energy (Ek) magnitude, whereas the typical the random motions of particles, in a high state of entropy, tend to cancel each other.
III. Ionic Alignment and the Resulting Magnitude of Kinetic Energy (Ek): Upon the alignment of the positive and negative charged ions, a state of low entropy is established resulting in a quantity of kinetic energy (Ek). This quantity of energy is in addition to the magnitude delivered by the to the magnitude delivered by the current flow (Ein) associated with the discharging of the voltage stored in the capacitor.
IV. Energy Availability: The latter suggested kinetic energy (Ek) is summated with the input energy (Ein) illustrated in equation (5). Equation (5) also leads into the method of testing suggested in section V.
(2H2O + Ein + Ek –> 2H2 + O2) (5)
V. Method of Testing: A method of testing exists by using standard thermodynamic equipment. The system must be controlled; therefore a bomb calorimeter is to be used to quantity potential exothermic heat energy. The exact quantity of electrical energy input into the system can be measured by standard available electronic testing equipment. The energy resulting from the system (Eout) can be measured by quantifying the atomic byproducts of the chemical reaction in equation (5); such quantification can be achieved by standard chemical analysis of the resulting gases.
As a result of having these two parameters (Ein), and (Eout), a simple arithmetic subtraction calculation can be made to determine the value of (Ek) that would be required to balance the stoichiometry.
 W.A. Stygar, T.C. Wagoner, H.C. Ives, Z.R. Wallace, V. Anaya, J.P. Corley, M.E. Cuneo, H.C. Harjes, J.A. Lott, G.R. Mowrer, E.A. Puetz, T.A. Thompson, S.E. Tripp, J.P. VanDevender, and J.R. Woodworth, in Physical Review Special Topics Accelerators and Beams 9, 070401 (2006).
 R.A. Eilbert and W.H. Lupton (unpublished).
 I.D. Smith, Atomic Weapons Research Establishment Report No. SSWA/JCM/6511/B, 1965
 I.D. Smith, Atomic Weapons Research Establishment Report No. SSWA/IDS/6610 /100, 1966.
 J.C. Martin, Proc. IEEE 80, 934 (1992).
 J.C. Martin, in J.C. Martin on Pulsed Power, Edited by T.H. Martin, A.H. Guenther, and M. Kristiansen (Plenum, New York, 1996).
 Thermodynamics (An Engineering Approach), by Yunus A. Cengel and Michael A. Boles, Fourth Edition (2002).
## Re: A Second Look at Dielectrics and ZPE , by Randy on Sunday, September 16, 2007, from ‘SeidmanVoltageBreakdown.pdf’ available at http://zpenergy.com/modules.php?name=News&file=article&sid=2504
There has been some discussion here of using radio frequency to improve the efficiency of electrolysis. According to Wikipedia, there are two mechanisms involved. One is known as electronic conduction where the current flow in the oscillating field allows the material to be warmed to absorb energy as heat.” This is the essence of microwave heating.
The second method involves an actual vibration of a dielectric medium in a radio frequency field. This is called “dielectric heating” and it involves dipole rotation: “Molecular rotation occurs in materials having an electrical dipole moment, which will align themselves in the field by rotating; as the field alternates, the molecules reverse direction and accelerate the motion of individual molecules or atoms.”
So, the basic method of “burning seawater” is simply the placement of the seawater in a real physical vibration of radio frequency. This can be achieved by attaching magnets to piezoelectric quantum dots and choosing the dimensions so that they oscillate at radio frequency. This will burn seawater. Also, a manufactured hollow dielectric sphere with attached magnets and the dimensions chosen to vibrate or “oscillate” at radio frequency will cause seawater to combust and continue to burn as long as this real physical vibration continues.
Computer simulation is needed to confirm the results of such a device before it is built so that ones efforts are not wasted. This would save a great deal of time in the development stage. Dielectrics naturally polarize themselves in the presence of an electric field.
There is really no need for fossil fuel at all for powering an internal combustion engine if natural radiant energy is converted to actual radio frequency physical vibrations. Hydrogen on demand through dielectric heating assisted electrolysis may be the basis of a new generation of hydrogen cars. Hydrogen on demand is a real and plausible solution to global warming. We just need to put the plan in place.
What we need is new leadership and common sense science. Randy
## N. K. KHOSLA, S. VENKATACHALAM, Pulsed electrogeneration of bubbles for electroflotation, revised 22 March 1991, JOURNAL OF APPLIED ELECTROCHEMISTRY 21 (t99t) 986-990, from ‘Pulsed electrogeneration of bubbles for electroflotation.pdf’ available at http://my.opera.com/h2earth/blog/cybrarium
N. K. KHOSLA, S. VENKATACHALAM, Department of Metallurgical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Powai, Bombay 400076, India
P. SOMASUNDARAN, Henry Krumb School of Mines, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027, U.S.A.
Fine bubbles of the size required for many processes such as electroflotation can be generated by electrolysis. A large number of factors such as electrode material, electrode surface/morphological properties, pH and current density affect the gas bubble size distribution. This work is aimed at studies on the effect of interrupted current (pulsed) electrolysis on the generation of gas bubbles. A microcomputer-controlled current source designed to generate the required pulses is described along with typical results obtained with this system. It was observed that a decrease in duty cycle at a given pH and average current density causes an increase in fine sized bubbles and concomitant increase in bubble flux. A mechanism based on local potential gradients is proposed to explain this phenomenon.
1. Introduction: Much of the experimental work addressing the generation of bubbles has been concerned with nucleate boiling, gas generation during electrolytic processing of materials as well as mass transfer/hydrodynamic aspects [1, 2]. A special consideration however for electro-flotation of mineral fines is the need to gen- erate fine (
A primary concern in processes such as electroflotation is the generation of fine bubbles of known size at a known bubble flux [3-7]. Various investigators [3, 4-16] have studied electrolytic generation of gas bubbles and the physical parameters governing the bubble size_ The occurrence of increased hydrogen bubble size in the acidic pH region and that of oxygen in the alkaline region is well known. Bubble contact angle [9-13], electrode condition (for example, surface roughness) [3, 16, 17], hydrogen overvoltage , current density [3, 9-11, 17], polarization potential  and bubble charge [15, 18] have been suggested by many workers to be among the factors governing the bubble departure diameter. For a given set of system parameters such as pH, temperature, reagent concentration and electrode material, the bubble properties are fixed and it becomes impractical to adjust these parameters to obtain efficient generation of the desired fine sized bubbles. Thus, there is need for a technique to generate bubbles of desired bubble size distribution largely independent of the solution conditions. Pulsed electrolysis can be carried out by using a waveform generator along with a potentiostat capable of fast slew rates. PC programmable power supplies usually have low slew rates and may not prove suitable as a pulsed current source for a capacitive load such as an electrolytic cell in the frequency range discussed in this work. In this work an IBM/PC controlled pulsed current source having a high voltage slew rate has been described. The pulsed source can be controlled by appropriate software which can be tailored to an individual application.
2. Literature review: The physical process of gas evolution can be divided into three stages: nucleation, growth and detachment. Bubbles nucleate at electrode surfaces from solutions highly supersaturated with product gas and grow by diffusion of dissolved gas to the bubble surface or by coalescence at the electrode with other bubbles . They detach from the electrode when buoyancy or liquid shearing forces pulling the bubbles away overcome the forces binding them.
Surface inhomogeneities such as cracks are generally considered high energy nucleation sites due to the availability of atomic ledges as high energy anchorage points. This phenomenon has been a subject of detailed investigation in nucleate boiling , crystallization and solidification [20, 21]. For bubble generation in vacuum or pressure release flotation (analogous to precipitation) the above phenomenon is important. During the electrolysis it is generally agreed that the preferred nucleation sites are at surface inhomogencities such as fissures, cracks and scratches [13, 17] as well as local inhomogeneities resulting in donor-acceptor  and low overpotential sites [3, 17]. The dependence of the voltage gradient at the tip of a needle electrode upon its curvature is a well known phenomenon. Occurrence of such sharp points on an electrode and the consequent presence of high local potential gradient sites cannot be ruled out. The importance of the role of voltage gradients towards nucleation is clear from the observation that on wire and mesh electrodes bubble size depends largely on electrode curvature (and thus potential gradient) almost independent of the current density [3, 13]. However, bubble growth rates are not strongly dependent on the diameter of wire electrodes .
Various mechanisms have been proposed to determine the bubble departure diameter. Coehn  proposed that electrostatic attraction between the bubble and the electrode is instrumental in determining the departure diameter. Stronger attraction requires a larger buoyant force for detachment necessitating larger bubble diameters. Bubble charge studies  conducted on platinum anodes at 10-40 kAm -2 tend to support this mechanism. However, electrostatic forces are predominant at current densities (106 A m-2), larger than those encountered in electroflotation [9-11, 14, 16]. Using high speed photography, Glas and Westwater  observed that contact angle is not as significant a factor as surface roughness or electrode material in determining the growth rate of bubbles.
A relation between the hydrogen overvoltage and the bubble size has been observed .
It was also observed that under clean conditions contact angle is dependent on the overvoltage .
Thus bubble size and flux in aqueous electrolysis seems to depend upon (a) surface morphological factors including donor acceptor and low overpotential sites and (b) the inherent overvoltage property of the electrode material.
3. Experimental details: The pulsed d.c. source was designed as a circuit board to be interfaced to a microcomputer giving the system flexibility in its configuration as a constant current/voltage source (Fig. 1). User interface is more versatile due to software control of the equipment. The circuit is mapped on the I/0 bus of the microcomputer using the switch S-1 and address decoder (DEC). The micro-computer sends data to the digital to analog converter (DA) through buffers (BUF). The timer (TIM) is programmed to generate timing pulses to update DA under the direct memory access (DMA) mode of the microcomputer. Thus, the requisite waveform is generated by the computer in the background while the computer is simultaneously available for computational and other control work. The DA output is fed to the power amplifier (PA). The high current supply (PS) is capable of providing a peak current of 5 A. The use of a 12-bit DA operating under direct memory access of an IBM/PC operating at 8 MHz offers a resolution of 0.024% for current (maximum current of 4A) and minimum pulse cycle time of 3.2ms with 0.5% resolution.
Software was developed for the generation of pulses (Fig. 2) of variable duty cycle at a selected average current. The average current (iav = id/lO0) was com- puted from the area under the curve (shaded) and the duty cycle (d) as the percentage of cycle time (icy) during which the current flows through the celt. Thus, for a square wave, the duty cycle is 50%. The software was designed to generate a high peak current nucleation pulse at the start of each cycle. The contribution of the nucleation pulse to the total energy was negligible (
Electrolysis was carried out in a quartz cell mounted on a stand backlit with a bright light source. A shuttered video camera (1/1000 shutter speed) fitted with microscope objective 50X to 300X) was used to record bubble dimensions on a video recorder. A video graphic printer was used to print the picture frames for subsequent bubble size measurement. The quartz cell was designed to circulate the electrolyte (1 M Na2SO4).The electrolyte (pH 10.0) was circulated by means of peristaltic pump and a large external reservoir of the electrolyte was maintained to ensure minimal pH change. Electrolyte circulation also facilitated removal of the generated gases.
The platinum plate cathode (1 cm 2) was carefully polished and thoroughly degreased. Care was taken to exclude surface active contaminants. The external glass reservoir for the electrolyte was always kept covered to prevent air-borne contamination. The bubbles were observed between 2 to 2.5 mm verticall) above the electrode.
Experiments were carried out for the electrogeneration of hydrogen bubbles with a pulsed current having a step waveform (Fig. 2). The solutions were electrolysed with an average current density ranging from 0.5 to 2.0Am -2 and duty cycle ranging from 5 to 100%. A cycle time of 30 ms was used and a recording period of 5min was used at each experimental condition. Bubble size distribution was computed by examining at least 150-200 bubbles in sharp focus.
4. Results: Initial experimental work on electrolysis with rectangular waveform having a leading high energy nucleation pulse, showed no significant difference from the electrolysis carried out without the leading nucleation pulse. Thus all subsequent work was conducted without a leading nucleation pulse.
The results obtained for bubble size distribution as a function of current density and duty cycle are presented in Figs 3-6. Bubble diameters were computed from the video prints by taking the average of bubbles found in sharp focus. It can be seen from Figs 3-6 that at a given average current density, a decrease in duty cycle results in an increase of bubbles of smaller diameter. This is expected to significantly increase the bubble flux.
5. Discussion: The chief effect of pulsing observed during electrolysis is the occurrence of an increased number of small sized ( Thus bubbles, once nucleated, require a relatively high current density for sustained growth. Studies with platinum electrodes have shown that bubble detachment is greatly facilitated by the interruption of current as well as by a reduction in the potential .
Pulsed electrolysis provides ample opportunity for the bubbles to dislodge since the current is interrupted after each cycle.
To study the effect of the presence of surface active reagents during pulsed electrolysis, experiments were performed in the presence of 1 x 10-5M sodium dodecylsulphonate, the concentration chosen being typical for froth flotation systems. Results plotted in Fig. 6 show that the effect of surfactant at high duty cycle (50%), as well as low duty cycle (5%), is not significant. An important effect of surfactant, namely the modification of the bubble-electrode contact angle has been shown to have very little effect in the case of hydrogen bubbles .
The following interpretation of the mechanisms is suggested for the nucleation and growth of bubbles during pulsed electrolysis.
5.1. Nucleation : Potential nucleation sites on the electrode surface, such as scratch edges and cavities, possess a wide variation in energy. The higher voltage required for higher instantaneous currents under pulsed con&tions largely offsets the effect of local potential gradients and also results in a high degree of local gas supersaturation, thus resulting in homogeneous nucleation.
At short times i.e. t
5.2. Growth and detachment : Growth is driven by the high internal excess pressure inside the bubble which is related to the surface of liquid-vapour interface. From 10ms onwards, diffusion of dissolved gas to the bubble contact perimeter becomes rate controlling . Under pulsed conditions of low duty cycle, growth is either entirely inertial or inertial and diffusion controlled. Under conditions of low current density (high duty cycle), while most nuclei may grow in a similar manner during the inertial phase, only nuclei at the lowest overpotential sites grow during the diffusion control phase due to concentration polarization. Frequent interruptions in current during pulsed electrolysis also promote bubble detachment. Bubble size increase by coalescence at the electrode [1, 19], as well as by coalescence in bulk, results in further increase in bubble diameter.
1. Pulsed electrolysis can be used to regulate bubble size independent of the average current density and other such parameters.
2. During water electrolysis, increase in current density results in finer bubbles which may find application in processes such as electroflotation.
Acknowledgements: The authors acknowledge the assistance of Dr D. R. Ketkar, Department of Metallurgical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay, in the experimental work. This work was supported by National Science Foundation. (Grant No. INT-87/16926.)
[1} P.J. Sides, in ‘Modern aspects of Electrochemistry’ (edited by R. E. White, J. O.’M. Bockris and B. E. Conway) 18, Plenum Press, New York (1986) p. 303.
 H. Vogt, in ‘Comprehensive Treatise on Electrochemistry’, Vol. 6, Plenum Press, New York (1983) p. 445.
 N. Ahmed and G. J. Jameson, Int. J. Min. Process. 14 (1985) 195.
 A.A. Mamakov, in ‘Modern State and Perspective of Electrolytic Flotation’, Vol. I (edited by V.P. Schtiinsta), Kishinev (1975) pp. 3-66 (in Russian).
 G.B. Raju and P. R. Khangaonkar, Int. J. Min. Process. 9 (1982) 133.
 H. Ledesma and M. Guzman, in ‘Production and Processing of Fine Particles’ (edited by A.J. Plumpton), Canadian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, Montreal (1988) pp. 195-202.
 E.A. Cassell, K. M. Kaufman and E. Matijevic, Water Research 9 (1975) 1017.
 A. Coehn, Z. Elektrochem. 29 (1923) 1.
 B.N. Kabanov, ‘Electrochemistry of metals and adsorption’, Nauka, Moscow (1966).
 B.N. Kabanov and A. N. Frumkin, Z. Phys. Chem. 165 (1933) 539.
 B.N. Kabanov and N. I. Vashchenko, Electrocapillary phenomena and wettability of materials, Proceedings Academy of Science USSR, Chemical Series (1936) 735.
 A. Coehn and H. Neumann, Z. fiir Phys. 20 (1923) 54.
 A.T. Kuhn, Chemical Processing 20 (1974), June 9-12, July 5-7.
 V.I. Klassen and V. A. Moukrosov, ‘An Introduction to The Theory of Flotation’, Butterworths, London (1963) p. 493.
 N.P. Brandon, G. H. Kelsall, S. Levine and A. L. Smith, J. Appl. Electrochem. 15 (1985) 485.
 D.R. Ketkar, R. Mallikarjunan and S. Venkatachalam, J. Electrochem. Soc. India 37 (1988) 313.
 J.P. Glas and J. W. Westwater, Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 7 (1964) 1427.
 N.P. Brandon and G. H. Kelsall, J. Appl. Electroehem. 15 (1985) 475.
 P. Sides and J. Tobias, J. Electrochem. Soc. 132 (1985) 583.
 R.D. Doherty, ‘Physical Metallurgy Part II’, (edited by R. W. Cahn and P. Haasen), North-Holland, Amster- dam (1963) pp. 967-75. E. Murr, ‘Interfacial Phenomena in Metals and Alloys’, Addison-Wesley, Reading MA (1975) pp. 259-80. P. Brandon, Ph.D. thesis, University of London (1985).
 L.E. Murr, ‘Interfacial Phenomena in Metals and Alloys’, Addison-Wesley, Reading MA (1975) pp. 259-80.
 N.P. Brandon, Ph.D. thesis, University of London (1985).
## TESLA, Nikola, Patent on his BIFILAR COIL, posted by Aaron on Energetic Forum
– Aaron, Energetic Scientist, 09-02-2007, 11:24 PM
COIL FOR ELECTRO-MAGNETS – Google Patents
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE. NIKOLA TESLA, OF NEW YORK, N.Y. COIL FOR ELECTRO-MAGNETS
SPECIFICATION forming part of Letters Patent No. 512,340, dated January 9, 1894. Application filed July 7, 1893. Serial No. 479,804. (No model.)
To all whom it may concern:
Be it known that I, NIKOLA TESLA, a citizen of the United States, residing at New York, in the county and State of New York, have invented certain new and useful Improvements in Coils for Electro-Magnets and other Apparatus, of which the following is a specification, reference being had to the drawings accompanying and forming a part of the same.
In electric apparatus or systems in which alternating currents are employed the self-induction of the coils or conductors may, and in fact, in many cases does operate disadvantagely by giving rise to false currents which often reduce what is known as the commercial efficiency of the apparatus composing the system or operate detrimentally in other respects. The effects of self-induction, above referred to, are known to be neutralized by proportioning to a proper degree the capacity of the circuit with relation to the self-induction and frequency of the currents. This has been accomplished heretofore by the use of condensers constructed and applied as separate instruments.
My present invention has for its object to avoid the employment of condensers which are expensive, cumbersome and difficult to maintain in perfect condition, and to so construct the coils themselves as to accomplish the same ultimate object.
I would here state that by the term coils I desire to include generally helices, solenoids, or, in fact, any conductor the different parts of which by the requirements of its application or use are brought into such relations with each other as to materially increase the self-induction.
I have found that in every coil there exists a certain relation between its self-induction and capacity that permits a current of given frequency and potential to pass through it with no other opposition than that of ohmic resistance, or, in other words, as though it possessed no self-induction. This is due to the mutual relations existing between the special character of the current and the self-induction and capacity of the coil, the latter quantity being just capable of neutralizing the self-induction for that frequency. It is well-known that the higher the frequency or potential difference of the current the smaller the capacity required to counteract the self-induction; hence, in any coil, however small the capacity, it may be sufficient for the purpose stated if the proper conditions in other respects be secured. In the ordinary coils the difference of potential between adjacent turns or spires is very small, so that while they are in a sense condensers, they possess but very small capacity and the relations between the two quantities, self-induction and capacity, are not such as under any ordinary conditions satisfy the requirements herein contemplated, because the capacity relatively to the self-induction is very small.
In order to attain my object and to properly increase the capacity of any given coil, I wind it in such way as to secure a greater difference of potential between its adjacent turns or convolutions, and since the energy stored in the coil considering – the latter as a condenser, is proportionate to the square of the potential difference between its adjacent convolutions, it is evident that I may in this way secure by a proper disposition of these convolutions a greatly increased capacity for a given increase in potential difference between the turns.
I have illustrated diagrammatically in the accompanying drawings the general nature of the plan which I adopt for carrying out this invention.
Figure 1 is a diagram of a coil wound in the ordinary manner.
Figure 2 is a diagram of a winding designed to secure the objects of my invention.
Let A, Figure 1, designate any given coil the spires or convolutions of which are wound upon and insulated from each other. Let it be assumed that the terminals of this coil show a potential difference of one hundred volts, and that there are one thousand convolutions; then considering any two contiguous points on adjacent convolutions let it be assumed that there will exist between them a potential difference of one-tenth of a volt.
If now, as shown in Figure 2, a conductor B be wound parallel with the conductor A and insulated from it, and the end of A be connected with the starting point of B, the aggregate length of the two conductors being such that the assumed number of convolutions or turns is the same, viz., one thousand, then the potential difference between any two points in A and B will be fifty volts, and as the capacity effect is proportionate to the square of this difference, the energy stored in the coil as a whole will now be two hundred and fifty thousand as great.
Following out this principle, I may wind any given coil either in whole or in part, not only in the specific manner herein illustrated, but in a great variety of ways, well-known in the art, so as to secure between adjacent convolutions such potential difference as will give the proper capacity to neutralize the self-induction for any given current that may be employed.
Capacity secured in this particular way possesses an additional advantage in that it is evenly distributed, a consideration of the greatest importance in many cases, and the results, both as to efficiency and economy, are the more readily and easily obtained as the size of the coils, the potential difference, or frequency of the currents are increased.
Coils composed of independent strands or conductors wound side by side and connected in series are not in themselves new, and I do not regard a more detailed description of the same as necessary. But heretofore, so far as I am aware, the objects in view have been essentially different from mine, and the results which I obtain even if an incident to such forms of winding have not been appreciated or taken advantage of.
In carrying out my invention it is to be observed that certain facts are well understood by those skilled in the art, viz: the relations of capacity, self-induction, and the frequency and potential difference of the current. What capacity, therefore, in any given case it is desirable to obtain and what special winding will secure it, are readily determinable from the other factors which are known.
What I claim as my invention is:
1. A coil for electric apparatus the adjacent convolutions of which form parts of the circuit between which there exists a potential difference sufficient to secure in the coil a capacity capable of neutralizing its self-induction, as herein before described.
2. A coil composed of contiguous or adjacent insulated conductors electrically connected in series and having a potential difference of such value as to give to the coil as a whole, a capacity sufficient to neutralize its self-induction, as set forth.
Witnesses: Robt. F. Gaylord ; Parker W. Page