Ken Shoulders

### Shoulders, Ken: (Page created in August 2007, Updated for November 2007)

## Ken Shoulders’ EVOs – Exotic Vacuum Objects Challenge Particle Theory

Particles of like charge repel each other – that is one of the laws describing the interaction between single sub-atomic particles. Not in all cases, says Ken Shoulders – there are some notable exceptions, although current theory has no description for them. Shoulders, who is an experimental physicist, has been working with what he calls EVOs or Exotic Vacuum Objects for more than two decades.

“There is a fascinating new realm of physical effects not covered by present-day single particle physics description, but still very much a part of the world we live in. These effects herald some forthcoming events greater in extent than those found in the single electron world we are most aware of. This domain is the multiple electron universe where the effects of electron ensembles dominate all others.”

EVOs or EV charge clusters behave like solitons. They are relatively stable, forming ensembles of large numbers of same-charge particles such as electrons or protons and they can be oriented to release their collective charge in a material target – think of a disintegrator gun (Electric Gun Effects (MDG: Also see a transcription below on this page)).

Larger image

Side view of aluminium foil, coated with silicon carbide, being subjected to EVOs. The small jets seen coming from under the foil have penetrated through it. Image: Ken Shoulders

Other potential applications include the production of thermal or electrical energy and the provision of thrust without chemical propellants. Observed output power largely exceeds the power necessary to stimulate the formation of EVOs.

Although applications are admittedly still speculative, there are good indications from experiments already performed that important changes in our understanding of charged particles, their modes of interaction and their practical uses lie ahead.

One well documented potential application of EVOs is their use in eliminating the radioactivity of spent nuclear fuel and contaminated nuclear materials. This should be particularly welcome to those looking for a way to solve the problem of what to do with all the radioactive waste materials produced by reactors and other nuclear facilities.

David Yurth whose article on Y-Bias and Angularity you can find on this site, was kind enough to provide a description of the nuclear test project that proved the case of nuclear remediation through the use of EVOs.

“Shortly after Ken Shoulders was awarded his first patent for the discovery and documentation of the phenomenon known at that time as High Density Charge Objects, S-X Jin began working to test the viability of his concept as a means for remediating radioactive emissions from spent nuclear fuels. Between 1994 and 1998, Jin and his associates successfully treated radioactive emissions generated by a solution of finely particulated Thorium oxalate powder in ultra-pure water. The apparatus they developed consisted of a high voltage spark generator, a custom-designed proprietary probe, an anode arrangement to attract the charge clusters, a partial pressure vacuum vessel containing Deuteride gas surrounded by a field of permanent magnets, and a variety of detection and measurement instrumentation devices to monitor various aspects of the process while it was in progress.

Great care was taken to certify that the only constituents contained in the test vessel prior to treatment were water and powdered Thorium. This requirement was satisfied by subjecting each test sample to analysis by a gas diffusion mass spectrometer prior to the treatment protocols. Once the treatment had been completed and the instrumentation array showed radioactivity to be reduced to ambient background levels, the samples were again tested with the gas diffusion mass spectrometer – and the results of those post-treatment analytical samples contained the information which fundamentally validated the underlying thesis about the dynamic processes evidenced by the high density electron charge clusters in this application.”

For a summary of the project with illustrations, see Remediation of Radioactive Emissions in Spent Nuclear Fuels using High Density Charge Cluster [EV0] Techniques .

The following article by Ken Shoulders was published in issue 75 of Infinite Energy magazine. It provides a brief overview of this new field and references to publicly available material about Ken Shoulders’ work. It is well worth to dig deeper in the References section.

## Electron Ensembles, by Ken Shoulders, © 2007

There is a fascinating new realm of physical effects not covered by present-day single particle physics description, but still very much a part of the world we live in. These effects herald some forthcoming events greater in extent than those found in the single electron world we are most aware of. This domain is the multiple electron universe where the effects of electron ensembles dominate all others.

# A Name :In the past, a litany of names has been used for this still emerging field (3). Such descriptors as EV (Electrum Validum or strong electron as well as Electromagnetic Vortex), HDCC (Hi Density Charge Clusters), Charge Clusters, Ectons (Used by Mesyats in Russia) and lately, EVO (Exotic Vacuum Object) have been designations for any cluster of charge over the size of a few electrons. Some clustering rules have been made evident by the author as described in references (1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 36).

# The Dividing Line : There is a still indistinct dividing line in numbers, for either electrons or protons, beyond which these new effects occur, but it lies somewhere between that of electron pairs and the hundreds of particles seen in nuclear clustering effects. One thing is clear in all instances, the normal repulsion laws for the like sign of electric charge between single particles do not hold in this new realm (8). The particles, or wavelets, are much more tightly bound than those in solids even though the number density is virtually the same, being in the range of Avogadro’s number. This high binding energy is demonstrably large when the ensemble is either suddenly disrupted or the group is caused to bore through ordinary solid matter (4).

# Charge and Mass non-Conservation : The most Holy laws of single particle, charge and mass conservation are totally disregarded when electrons consort in this ensemble mode, as the values of both charge and mass vary over a range of over a billion to one when the initial number of electrons used to form an EVO are compared to the number of electrons contained within the EVO black state (9,10).

# Energy Production : This gross reduction of charge and mass are at the root of, so-called, cold fusion energy gain. The process of energy production in this case is not nuclear in its origin but rather traceable to the high velocity of nucleon acceleration achieved efficiently through, first, mass reduction of nuclei by EVO association, and then the concomitant interaction of this high velocity projectile, operating at high mass by virtue of EVO entrainment loss, dumping its energy into the host lattice (11, 12).

This almost arbitrary change in charge and mass causes havoc with another Holy law, namely, the law of energy conservation (13, 14). Factually, the only actual havoc caused is with those clinging to the old laws of single particle theory and practice. Moving on to the new world of multi particle ensembles vanquishes this disarray.

Although the nuclear world was bypassed for production of energy via the cold fusion process, it is severely impacted through the ability of electron ensembles, EVOs, to transmute nucleons most easily as a part of their normal interaction with matter. There is plenty of nuclear ash found in the cold fusion process, but it is not necessarily a hallmark of nuclear energy release. Incidentally, almost all of this ash is non-radioactive (15). The notable exception is the production of tritium.

# Propulsion : As unusual as the energy production effects are, the propulsion effects are even more fundamental, extremely useful and at the root of the energy production methods (16, 17, 18, 19, 20). These effects vary from simple propulsion of nucleons for thermal energy production to the propulsion of EVOs for the production of both electrical energy and large thrusting forces for lifting objects. The electrical energy production method does not suffer the short-life defect found in thermal energy production, where nucleons are moved, but rather gives what appears to be limitless lifetime in that no nucleons are disarranged from their original position in the apparatus as propulsive energy is transferred via electrons. The static lifting mechanism is grossly in violation of normal laws of thrusting as derived from single particle physics. Such ancient theoretical laws cannot be used to evaluate EVO thrust producing methods and experimental technique is the only recourse at this time.

# Penetrating Universal Barriers : While such astral luminaries as WIMPS (Weakly Interacting Massive Particles) and Black Holes (24, 25) might seem to be demoted and reduced in rank by associating them with ordinary laboratory experiments, which can both make them and manipulate them through the use of EVO techniques, their significance is not diminished because even the ordinary laboratory form can perform admirably as intermediates and messengers (21) to something like another Universe (22).

# The Dark Side of Electron Ensembles : For all the good EVOs and their kin seem to do, there is a very dark side to their use by humans who do not yet know how to handle such extremely high energy densities when coupled with the ease of use afforded (23, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 35). The problem introduced by EVO usage is that they penetrate great distances into standard material and release their energy at whatever point their level of accumulated disturbance indicates. This means that they can be initially set to a predetermined level of excitation and then destruct at a chosen point for dispensing their contained energy. This amounts to an electrical projectile being capable of destroying any known object bit by bit.

The real difficulty with this method of destruction is that the gun does not need to be reloaded as its energy comes from the virtually inexhaustible source that drives all electron ensembles as EVO energy generators. One should reflect on the difference between a bomb that destroys itself, thus giving rise to a finite energy release, and a gun that can continue dispensing grief until it finally shoots away its own mount when nothing else is left. The largest hope for surviving this kind of weapon, until we learn how to behave socially, is held in the Shield (32) afforded by the same technology. Unfortunately, this shield is not as easy to design and make as the gun.

# Proceeding : All of the findings discussed here were discovered outside of any organized, institutionalized, research environment. As such, they are heretical doctrine. Still, the facts discovered hold together well enough to warrant further development. The time has come to combine the many elements discovered and turn them into useful devices for energy creation and propulsion of the best kind. The next phase of this work should be done by using the same methods by which they were originally discovered, namely, in the freedom of the vast space outside of academia (33, 34). For a short time to come, possibly 2 or 3 years, the work should continue on the very small scale where it was discovered. This gives maximum leeway for the investigator to wiggle in and out of the various traps provided by nature, resulting in an early arrival for a useful commercial product.

One must wonder what these consorting electron ensembles will think of next?

# References:

– [1] K. R. Shoulders, EV– A Tale of Discovery, Austin, TX, 1987. A historical sketch of early EV work having: 246 pages, 153 photos and drawings, 13 references.
Available from the author at: 365 Warren Dr., Ukiah, CA 95482, Email, Phone: (707) 467-9935

– [2] U.S. Patents issued to K. R. Shoulders on EVs. 5,018,180 (1991) – 5,054,046 (1991) – 5,054,047 (1991) – 5,123,039 (1992), and 5,148,461 (1992).
Reference essays by Ken Shoulders available in PDF format for download from:

– [3 ] What’s an EVO’s%20an%20EVO.pdf

– [4 ] Charge Clusters In Action

– [5 ] Permittivity Transitions

– [6] EVOs and Hutchison Effect

– [7] EVO Life Cycle

– [8] Short Range Electron Attractive Force

– [9] Electric Charge Non-Conservation

– [10] Which Mass

– [11] Energy Conversion From The Exotic Vacuum Revised

– [12] What is the Universe Made of

– [13] Energy

– [14] EVO Oscillation-The Friendly Enemy

– [15] ICCF-10 Low Voltage Nuclear Transmutation

– [16] An EVO Clutch and Microphone

– [17] EVO Propulsion Basis 2

– [18] Large-scale propulsion using EVOs

– [19] Propulsion Using Zero Point Quantum Pressure

– [20] Superluminal Particle Measurements

– [21] Dark Matter Messengers

– [22] A Leak From Our Universe to Another

– [23] Disruptor

– [24] Black Holes as EVOs

– [25] EVOs as WIMPs

– [26] Electromagnetic Pulse Source Using Fluidized Electrons

– [27] Electromagnetic Pulse Source Using Fluidized Electrons-Appendix I

– [28] Equalizer Two

– [29] Projectiles From the Dark Side

– [30] The Good The Bad And The Ugly

– [31] Transmission of EVOs Through Metal

– [32] Shielding From The Inevitable

– [33] Elements of Support for New Technology

– [34] Exploring

– [35] Electric Gun Effects

– [36] Electron Condenser

# Comments:
– October 22, 2007 05:40 PM| Posted by: David Tombe
I have maintained that electrons will indeed mutually attract each other providing that there is nothing but pure space between them.

I wrote a paper explaining that two negatively charged bodies will be subjected to a hydrodynamically based force of mutual attraction and an elastically based force of mutual repulsion.

The question is merely that of which effect is dominant for given situations. The details can be found at

– October 22, 2007 08:02 PM | Posted by: Dr. Leif Rongved
The undersigned whishes to make two comments. The first comment deals with an exotic vacuum object. The other deals with the notion of an accelerating expansion of the universe discussed under the heading, “What is the Universe Made Of”.

In a paper, “The Pervasive Expansion of the Universe” the author suggests the presence of an aether filling all space of density of order equal to the nuclear density. The aether is sensed as empty space. One sense only fluid motions superimposed on the aether, as various forms of matter, fields. and propagations. The paper is presently under review for publication. However, a PDF format of it is available on the web site,

The Accelerating Expansion of the Universe is a Figment of Imagination.
According to Hubble’s law the galaxies of the universe on a large scale recede at constant velocities proportional to their present distances away from us. There are now many scientist who feels that this law must be modified. They suggest that the galaxies of the universe are accelerating away from us. By this law the forces on the near side of any galaxy must be greater than the force on its far side. Therefore, if “it” is whatever accelerates the galaxies, “it” must be greatest at our galaxy and “it” must diminish as one proceeds on any radial direction away from us. This is OK if and only if we are at the center of the universe, which is an entirely unacceptable notion. Moreover, the variations in “it” is at odds with the observed large scale uniformity of the universe. Some papers suggest that a uniform distribution of “it” will produce the assumed accelerations. This notion is completely at odds with our every day experience. We are exposed to an atmospheric pressure of about 15 lb. per square inch. This pressure does not push us apart, because it is equal on all sides of us. It does reduce our volumes a bit so that the pressure is sensibly constant throughout our body, except for small local variations due to heart beats, intestinal gas etc.

It is of interest to note that the Hubble expansion is in exact accord with Euler’s nonlinear equations for all ideal fluids where the fluid pressure is a function of the fluid density. See for example, Rongved, L. “Fluid Dynamics of an Expanding Ideal Fluid”, Quarterly of Applied Mathematics, Vol. XLVII, Num. 4, p 735-745. 1980. The fluid pressure and density are gradually diminishing with time as a result of the expansion. However, they are at any given time uniform throughout space. The fluid elements recede from each other at constant rates proportional to their distances apart exactly like the galaxies of the universe. This is true no matter how large the fluid pressure is.

Another important property of the Hubble expansion is that on a large scale it is identical relative to all galaxies of the universe. Any galaxy will appear to be at the center of the expansion. It is in accord with the observed isotropy and uniformity of the universe on a large scale. Thus, the Hubble expansion makes sense for more than one reason. The accelerating expansion of the universe makes no sense at all.

For an explanation of the greater than expected brightness of Novae and quasars see the web site, In one scoop one resolve the brightness problem and several outstanding questions and paradoxes of mathematical physics and astronomy.

– October 23, 2007 12:14 PM | Posted by: Sepp for Hal Puthoff
Hal Puthoff says (by email): FWIW, I published a model on the arXiv web site that addresses this issue (arXiv:physics/0408114 “Charge Confinement by Casimir Forces”).

A strong version of this (concerning what keeps an electron from exploding from its own charge repulsion) has been accepted for publication in the International Jour. Theor. Phys. The arXiv version is at arXiv:physics/0610042 (“Casimir Vacuum Energy and the Semiclassical Electron”).

## Electric Gun Effects by Ken Shoulders © 2006 Gun Effects.pdf

[Electric Gun Effects] 7/21/06 (1 page) 1

This note covers the natural progression of the EVO gun as a device for the reduction of standard weapon effectiveness, by exploding their ammunition and destruction of electronic controls, to the next expected stage of being an EVO gun as a replacement weapon used against humans. The sequence from ballistic projectile to electric projectile seems to fit into the natural scheme of things. There will be many frustrating attempts at removing this new gun from the reach of individuals, and these will certainly be practiced with regularity, but in the end, still unforeseen forces will bring us to the ultimate conclusion, as it severely upsets the balances acquired thus far in our slow process of becoming civilized.

The Weapon Characteristics: One of the first things seen with this class of device is that there is no need for large, cumbersome weapons as its range is practically unlimited and the total energy deposited is set almost entirely by how long the weapon remains active. By using a small energy per shot and many shots, plenty of destruction can be accomplished. This is also the easiest thing to do at this time thus making this method most likely to first occur.

It is expected that the weapon size would vary from that of a cigarette lighter upward to that of a small flashlight. With no noise generated at the source and having an effective electromagnetic shield, the gun is virtually undetectable while launching projectile after projectile, at a rate of thousands per second, capable of passing through any known material. It operates with an easily adjusted penetration depth dumping its energy in the form of an internally generated spark. It can be operated innocuously from behind walls and there is no good detection method for the projectiles known other than the possible indication of a small, spark-like vector streak resulting from a poorly assigned penetration depth. Some small sparks in the air nearby would surely indicate an attack is in progress.

When assessing the damage produced from such a weapon, it is informative to compare the number of watt seconds required for emplacement damage to the watt seconds available from an ordinary battery used to supply power to the very efficient EVO gun or projector. Considering that most of the target material is active biologically, very few picowatt seconds of proper emplacements are required to disrupt many pounds of material. A delayed indication of the target being struck is likely to cause overexposure with near certain death. All of this must also be considered in the light of how easy it is to set a totally undetectable trap as a form of advanced, non-explosive land mine.

The Effects Expected: Penetration of metal would give similar action to that found in the Hutchison Effect where a form of charge-driven, internal pressure gives rise to distortion and disruption. The action on biological targets is likely to homogenize tissue in the strike region. This disruption would be similar to the disruption seen in EVO boring through materials where non-thermal effects predominate giving rise to atomic dishevelment of biological material. The spark like explosion occurs inside the target whereby there is no equivalent mechanism known for causing this total decomposition of matter.

In some respects, this is equivalent to radiation damage but on a much larger scale per particle or projectile. Damage accumulation in humans is likely to first produce a slight sting, depending on the area hit, followed by disorientation and then sickness with increased dosage. A single shot to the head would certainly give permanent memory damage extending to a volume of thousands of cubic microns of material.

From Here On: Maybe this is the Doomsday weapon forecast for so long as it is clear that this type of weapon would be as vile and despicable as anything ever conceived. Unfortunately, it seems inevitable in its arrival due to its overwhelming simplicity of manufacture and application. I am presently torn between the alternatives of implementing an insipid form of personal survival plan by dispersal of information or just quietly going away—and letting someone else introduce the technology.

I see no clear way out of this dilemma except to leave our present biological format for another one that is more sophisticated and durable. The only simple hope I can see is in making simple laws and agreements between individuals and small groups, as we have in our distant past, instead of attempting to implement those laws more recently used and intended for regulating the masses. It is very hard to obtain and ensure agreements in large groups. With this, we can have the small group on small group problems all over again.

## Soulders’s official website

Reproduction of the List of .pdf and .doc files to download:

An EVO Clutch and Microphone.pdf 27-Oct-2004 05:05 ; 10k

Charge Clusters In Action.pdf21-Sep-2000 08:59 ; 481k

EVO Life Cycle.doc24-Mar-2006 10:58 ; 1.7M

EVO Oscillation-The Friendly Enemy.pdf14-Nov-2004 13:52 ; 11k

EVO Propulsion Basis 2.pdf 10-Apr-2005 14:01 ; 2.2M

EVOs and Hutchison Effect.pdf 16-May-2005 10:08 ; 1.1M

EVOs as WIMPs.pdf02-May-2006 08:08 ; 11k

Electromagnetic Pulse Source Using Fluidized Electrons-Appendix I.PDF 09-Jul-2005 08:54 ; 2.3M

Electromagnetic Pulse Source Using Fluidized Electrons.pdf12-Jul-2005 07:44 ; 36k

Electron Condenser.pdf15-Sep-2004 06:40 ; 303k

Elements of Support for New Technology.pdf 04-Sep-2004 10:04 ; 22k

Energy Conversion From The Exotic Vacuum Revised.pdf 01-Jul-2004 07:34 ; 1.0M

Energy.pdf 06-Feb-2005 10:47 ; 6k

Equalizer Two.pdf12-Jul-2005 13:15 ; 12k

Exploring.pdf 10-Feb-2004 08:18 ; 16k

ICCF-10 Low Voltage Nuclear Transmutation.pdf31-Aug-2003 08:41 ; 2.0M

Large scale propulsion using EVOs.pdf04-Oct-2004 10:50 ; 17k

Permittivity Transitions.pdf 21-Sep-2000 14:39 ; 2.7M

Projectiles From the Dark Side.pdf 06-May-2006 07:26 ; 23k

Propulsion Using Zero Point Quantum Pressure.pdf17-Jul-2004 15:07 ; 516k


Short Range Electron Attractive Force.pdf25-Aug-2004 04:24 ; 11k

The Good The Bad And The Ugly.pdf23-Aug-2004 09:30 ; 742k

Transmission of EVOs Through Metal.pdf 29-Apr-2006 03:44 ; 285k

Web Montage.pdf 30-May-2005 12:13 ; 2.7M

What is the Universe Made of.pdf 02-Jul-2004 12:29 ; 1.1M

What’s an EVO.pdf10-Oct-2004 10:51 ; 18k’s%20an%20EVO.pdf

Which Mass.pdf21-May-2006 06:37 ; 7k

nev clusters 2.pdf19-Feb-2003 17:13 ; 214k

## Re: ZPE Patent, by Jerry W. Decker, 24 Mar 1998

Hi Chuck!
Damn, I just responded to him and forgot to cc you….well, nothing you don’t know already….he sent me an email saying he was a close friend of Tom Bearden so that makes him cool in my book….he said Tom knew someone who recently got a patent for a zpe tap device, so I suggested it was Ken Shoulders with his 86 page patent back in about 1992….brilliant patent…and he actually SAYS he gets ZPE from his charge cluster technology….you can do a lookup at the IBM patent server…bottom box on the main.htm page of KeelyNet….just type Ken Shoulders and it will show about 8 patents, most dealing with charge clusters, he calls them EVs for ‘electro validium’ clusters…where electrons which normally repel from each other are forced to clump together like grapes into what he calls ‘charge clusters’..

Video monitors, TVs and such all use magnetic or electrostatic fields to direct the path of high speed electrons emitted by the electron gun at the back of the picture tube, that’s why they use high voltage (30,000 to 50,000 volts in the flyback transformer)….so these electrons are through off and move with high velocity to strike the phosphors on the picture tube, causing them to glow for a second or two, so the picture is painted by single electrons, like water droplets splattering at specific locations of the tube. When the electron is on, it causes a dot, when it is off, the dot remains dark….now color is another matter entirely…

ANYWAY, I digress….Ken found that these charge clusters when clumped as they are, hold a tremendous amount of power, so when you throw them at something, they literally EXPLODE to release all kinds of very intense and localized energy.

Ken has found that the ‘dirt’ signature produced by cold fusion spectral analysis almost exactly matches the spectral signature of the ‘dirt’ he sees after a charge cluster collision in pure material. It was a pleasure to hear his presentation at the low level energy conference that Dr. Bockris put on a couple of years ago…I thought he has now explained it, but I don’t hear much of anything about it in the cold fusion documents I’ve read. Seems like he ruffled a lot of feathers….you’d really like Ken, neat guy, bizarre sense of humor and he has little patience for free energy type claims…can’t blame him, way too much fluff, but he will listen and offer good advice when cornered…….

Anyway, I shared some info on Casimir cells and other stuff with Richard and asked if his zpe tapping patent had been assigned yet, if so, could he give me the patent so we could all study it….will await his response and share it if constructive….

## Research Breakthroughs and Commercial Developments

According to knowledgeable observers, we should focus our attention on six new technologies: (1) plasma-type devices; (2) solid-state electromagnetic devices; (3) hydrogen gas cells; (4) super motors based on super magnets; (5) cold fusion or “new hydrogen energy” (the Japanese name for cold fusion); (6) hydrosonic or cavitation devices.

(1) Plasma-type devices – A variety of plasma-type devices have been patented and are being developed with private funding for applications ranging from computer chips to power plants. One of the most promising of these devices is called the XS NRG PAGD (Pulsed Abnormal Glow Discharge) reactor. Created by inventors Dr. Paulo and Alexandra Correa at Labofex in Canada, the system is well on its way to commercialization for electric power generation in vehicles and in homes, solidly protected by U.S and foreign patents (USP 5,449,989).

The reactor’s self-oscillating electrical plasma discharge produces electrical energy directly, with no intermediate thermal conversion step. The electricity produced by the Correas’ device is effectively free. The Correas write conservatively: ” . . .The cost of kWh (kilowatt hours) produced by this technology is estimated to be more than ten times cheaper than what is presently available from any other energy source.”

Ken Shoulders’ “charge cluster” device is another promising plasma technology. Shoulders worked for a number of years as a researcher for MIT, Stanford Research Institute and private corporations. In the 1960s he helped to develop much of today’s microcircuit technology. His high-density charge cluster device produces more than thirty times greater output than input energy.

Produced by a short pulse of electric potential, a typical one-micron charge cluster is a tightly packed group of about 100 billion electrons which have broken free from their nuclei and have come together into remarkably stable ring-shaped units that look like tiny donuts. At first glance, they seem to violate a principle of physics that asserts that electrical charges, either positive or negative, repel each other. Shoulders’ 1991 patent for “energy conversion using high charge density” was the first successful patent to claim significantly more output than input in a device that could be a practical source of decentralized electrical energy (USP 5,018,180). Because charge cluster technology works without the need for magnetic fields or low temperatures, it could well be one of the first new energy devices to be commercialized.

Shoulders’ basic process may also be valuable for the remediation of nuclear waste. By bombarding radioactive nuclei with charge clusters, the induced nuclear reactions (primarily fissioning of the heavier elements) result in a reduction of harmful radiation. Laboratory experiments show a dramatic transmutation of radioactive thorium into smaller-mass elements with the marked reduction of the naturally radioactive thorium. With proper engineering complete eradication may become possible.

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