## Extracts from the book Tapping The Zero-Point Energy:
How ‘Free Energy’ and ‘Anti-gravity’ might be possible with today’s Physics.
by Moray B. King, also author of ‘Quest for Zero-Point Energy’, dedicated to all inventors who freely give of themselves so that our planetary Being may be uplifted.
Table of Contents:
# Tapping the Zero-Point Energy (1978) … 1
# Is Artificial Gravity Possible? (1976) … 19
# Stepping down High Frequency Energy (1981) … 33
# Noise as a source of Energy (1982) … 45
# Macroscopic Vacuum Polarization (1984) … 57
# Cohering the Zero-Point Energy (1986) … 77
# The Holistic Paradigm (1987) … 107
# Demonstrating a Zero-Point Energy Coherence (1988) … 123
# Electrolytic Fusion: A Zero-Point Energy Coherence? (1989) … 143
# Scalar Current (1989) … 167
# Afterword … 171
I have not always believed it was possible to tap energy from the fabric of space. As a Ph.D. graduate student in systems engineering, I held the standard view shared by most scientists and engineers.
I knew the vacuum was empty because Einstein’s theory of relativity did not need an ether. It was in the summer of 1974 that I had the misfortune of reading ‘Beyond Earth’, a book about UFO’s. I picked it up just for fun, to read like science fiction. But what impressed me were the witnesses. Many were credible, such are airline pilots and police, who had everything to lose by reporting what they saw.
The observed flying craft could undergo incredible acceleration and hairpin turns. They definitely appeared to exhibit an antigravity, or perhaps more accurately, an artificial gravity propulsion.
This prompted me to ask the question: Is antigravity possible, or is artificial gravity possible?
Since I wished to use this investigation as a thesis topic, I imposed the following constraint: I could only use sources in the standard physics litterature and journals.
In other words, did our physics today contain the principles that allow artificial gravity?
At this point I studied the ‘bottom line’ theory of gravity, Einstein’s theory of general relativity. From it I learned that gravity was a curvature in the space-time metric induced by the stress-energy tensor.
This tensor could be comprised of mass or energy for they are equivalenced by E=mc2.
To achieve levitation on the surface of the earth required an enormous energy whose mass equivalent was 1012 grams.
Things were not looking hopeful if we had to provide all this energy. Then, however, I discovered in the last two chapters of Misner, Thorne and Wheeler’s ‘Gravitation’ that in quantum mechanics there existed an all-prevading energy imbedded in the fabric of space consisting of fluctuations of electricity.
It was called the zero-point energy. Zero-point refers to absolute zero degrees Kelvin. Wheeler’s ‘Geometro-dynamics’ showed that the energy density was enormous: 1093 grams/cm3.
Quantum mechanics showed that this energy was constantly interacting with matter and the elementary particles in what is called vacuum polarization. If only a small amount of this energy could be made coherent in a statistical sense, then not only could artificial gravity be induced, but the energy could be tapped as a source as well.
At this point I asked my professors if it was possible to tap the zero-point energy. I was surprised to find most did not know this energy existed. Those who did, replied it could not be tapped because the action of this energy is random, and random things must forever remain random. This is the law of entropy, the second law of thermodynamics.
Things were looking bleak until I discovered the work of Ilya Prigogine, who won the 1977 Nobel Prize in chemistry for identifying under what conditions a turbulent system may evolve from chaos to self-organization. These conditions were stated in general system terms, and the published theories of the zero-point energy could fulfill these conditions!
To build a theoretical case for tapping the zero-point energy requires merging two areas of physics: Theories of system self-organization and theories of the zero-point energy. I have found that most scientists are specialists and are generally unfamiliar with both theoretical areas. Those that are agree that a speculative case can be built, but it requires an experiment to prove it. To this I whole-heartedly agree.
To encourage experimental research, I have given a series of talks and papers over the last fourteen years for engineers and inventors. As an engineer, I was amazed at the mervelous possibilities arising from the theoretical constructs of modern physics. Each presentation was intented to stand alone and introduce the concepts in physics that allowed the possibility for a new technology. Thus as a collection, the chapters will contain a certain amount of redundancy. On the other hand this allows reading the book in any order. Let your intuition guide you in this.
I would like to express my thanks and deep appreciation to the following individuals who donated their time and talents in helping to produce this book: David Faust, Carl Rhoades, Andrea Powell, Dan Olson, and Rita Fryer. I would also like to thank the International Tesla Society and the United States Psychotronics Association for the opportunities to present this work.
# Tapping the Zero-Point Energy, May 1978
Abstract: Quantum mechanics claims the vacuum consists of fluctuating energy. Recent advances in theories of the zero-point energy and nonlinear thermodynamics open the possibility of cohering this energy. This could be verified by repeatably producing ball lightning in the laboratory.
Introduction: Modern physics may allow the possibility of tapping energy directly out of the fabric of space. While studying physics as a graduate student, I ran into a most interesting set of papers. 1-8 They stated that totally empty space was filled with fluctuating energy. As en engineer caught in an energy crisis, two questions arose. Was the energy really there and, if so, could it be tapped as a source? I talked with many scientists on this matter and discovered a remarkable thing: Most did not believe this energy exist.
However, I did run into some physicists who were already familiar with the concept. When I asked them, ‘Why can’t this energy be tapped?’ the reply was, ‘It would violate the second law of thermodynamics, the law of entropy. Random fluctuations must forever remain random’. To them, there was no way to influence this energy.
Then I discovered the work of Dr. Timothy Noyer5 who showed that matter influenced this fluctuating energy. And recently, I discovered the work of Dr. Ilya Prigogine, 9,10 the 1977 Nobel Prize winner in chemistry, who expanded the second law of thermodynamics to show how certain systems may evolve from randomness toward order. Combining their work opens up the possibility, in principle, that the fluctuating energy of space may be cohered into a source. It requires new physics, physics of the 1970’s, to open the theoretical door. I predict an experiment will come through that door. The repeatable production of ball lightning in the laboratory may prove it is possible to tap the zero-point energy.
# The ether: The notion of a plenum embedded in the fabric of empty space is not new to science. During the 18th and 19th centuries, the ether was considered the all-prevading medium which would sustain light waves. At the turn of the century, Michelson and Morley attempted to detect the ether wind. Such a wind would be present if the earth were moving relative to a static, material ether. When Michelson and Morley failed to detect such a wind, Einstein used this result to verifyhis first postulate of relativity known as Lorentz invariance. This states that all observers moving at a constant velocity will experience the same laws of physics. Failure to detect the ether wind resulted in the general belief that no ether exists. Note the Michelson and Morley experiment only rules out a static ether; it is perfectly viable to have a Lorentz invariant ether. 1,2,46 Nikola Tesla 32 inventor of the alternating current generator, designed his devices based on a belief in an ether, and he argued quite vocally with the scientific community on this matter. When relativity theory became popular, Tesla’s later designs were discredited. The scientific community and Tesla could have resolved their differences simply by considering a Lorentz invariant ether model. Then, they both would have been right.
A special class of ether theories describe space as a sea of fluctuating energy. These theories are significant because quantum physics predict that vacuum fluctuations exist and gives them the name zero-point energy. The word ‘zero-point’ refer to the fact that these fluctuations persist even at zero degrees Kelvin. There are many descriptions of the vacuum energy in the physics literature. In the 1930’s Dirac3 derived the idea that the vacuum consisted of a virtual sea of fluctuating electron-positron pairs. The discovery of the positron a few years later popularized Dirac’s theory and the concept of vacum polarization entered physics: Electric fields can affect the sea of fluctuating virtual charges.
By applying the theory of general relativity to the zero-point energy, Wheeler4 derives a bizarre view of the fabric of space. The large energy densities of the zero-point fluctuations cause space to pinch in a manner similar to the formation of black holes. Wheeler views the vacuum as a fluctuating sea of mini-black holes and mini-white holes that pass electric flux through hyperspace channels he calls worm-holes. This fluctuating sea, called the quantum foam, allows multiple connectivity: Distant object in space can be instantaneously connected. Since the connections are random and constantly fluctuating, the theory maintains macroscopic causality. But if these connections could be technologically controlled, the possibility for teleportation would arise. Then the only way to maintain causality would be to accept Everett’s ‘Many Worlds Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics’ 26 where an infinite number of universes exist parallel to our own!
Another theory of the zero-point energy that has achieved succesful quantitative results, is the random electrodynamics of Boyer. 5 He derived the spectral characteristics of the zero-point energy by assuming a Lorentz invariant spectrum. He thus mathematically described how the zero-point energy oscillates in its interaction with matter. Recently Boyer has introduced a new viewpoint to physics: Quantume effects arise because matter interacts and influences the fluctuating zero-point energy (Table 1). Note here the photon need not exist as a particle. 6 It only appears as such due to the wave chopping nature of the detection or absorption process. The mathematics needed to quantitatively support this viewpoint is overwhelmingly difficult. Some success has been achieved, but it will require new techniques in nonlinear analysis to complete. The appeal of this viewpoint is that it does not require special quantum postulates, thus it gives a more unifying view of the universe.
(See original book for: Table 1: A New Viewpoint, Quantum Effects Arise from a Matter, Zero-point Energy Interaction.)
Despite the difficulty (Table 2), experiments have detected the zero-pont energy and these experiments may be referenced through the text by Harris. 7
(See original book for: Table 2: Reasons the Zero-Point Energy is Difficult to Detect.)
# Inducing Coherence: How can this energy be tapped? The key is Boyer’s observation that matter and the zero-point energy mutually interact. This opens the possibility for a positive feedback loop that coheres this energy. Normally, the action of the zero-point energy is random and incoherent. But what type of system can create order from disorder? The thermodynamics advanced by Prigogine 9,10 identifies what type of systems tend toward increasing entropy or randomness and what kinds of systems rend to take random action toward macroscopic order.
Linear systems always tend toward increasing entropy. A linear system is characterized by linear superposition which states that the result of the sum of two inputs is the sum of their corresponding outputs. Since most systems analyzed in science are modeled by sets of linearized equations, it is not surprising that a majority of scientists believe all systems must tend toward increasing randomness and disorder. As a result of this believe a paradox arises. How can one explain the existence of life without violating thermodynamics? The recent work of Prigogine clarifies the second law of thermodynamics. He demonstrates that nonlinear systems under certain conditions may evolve toward macroscopic order. A simple example of this thesis is the rectifier circuit (Figure 1). Here thermal noise from the resistor is channeled through the one-way valve of the diode to charge up the capacitor. Thus, energy in a random state (thermal noise) is channeled to produce energy that can be used for work (charged capacitor).
(See original book for: Figure 1: A simple nonlinear system.)
Since a non linear system does not exhibit linear superposition, a combination of inputs often produces surprising, synergetics effects – the whole becomes greater than the sum of its parts. A striking example of this comes from the field of plasma physics. When sufficient energy (e.g. an electric impulse) is added to a gas, it ionizes into a plasma. If more energy is added, the electric charges undergo violent, random, turbulent motion. If still more energy is added, a suprising thing can sometimes occur: The violent turbulentplasma forms up into a meta-stable vortex ring called a plasmoid. 11-13 Figure 2 is a cross section diagram of the current flow in the plasmoid. Such a structure cannot be predicted by a linear thermodynamic model, but it can be predicted by a nonlinear magnetohydrodynamic model. The nonlinear interactions produce macroscopic coherence from random turbulence.
(See original book for: Figure 2: Plasmoid current flow.)
This palsmoid vortex ring may produce a cohering resonance with the zero-point energy as the zero-point energy interacts with the plasmoid. This interaction occurs in a nonlinear system evolving toward meta-stable order. Could the plasmoid slightly cohere the zero-point energy by vacuum polarization so that it provides the energy flux needed to maintain the system? Are there any examples in nature that imply such a thing could occur? Ball lightning has been modeled as a vortex ring plasmoid, 15,16 and its surprising persistence implies it is interacting with some source of energy.
# Ball Lightning: Ball lightning appears as a glowing fireball, that sometimes is produced during thunderstorms or in accidents involving electric discharge. The unusual thing about it is its persistence. Most discharge decay very rapidly, but ball lightning has been observed to last for many seconds.18 Its behavior is unusual too. It sometimes tunnels through windiws or travels down chimneys. It has been reported to enter the cockpit window of aircraft, float down the fuselage, and exit through the tail.18 There is also a case on record where it has been produced by accident more than once in a submarine.17 A discharge from a specially-shaped circuit breaker (Figure 3) launched a green, glowing fireball. It scared everybody out of the engineer room and then proceeded to float down the corridor before it decayed away. Ball lightning is truly an unusual and surprising phenomenon.
The energy content of this plasmoid has not been adequatly explained by conventional physics. Especially difficult to explain is its persistence within a shielded environment (e.g. submarine hull). However, a zero-point energy interaction can explain its persistence, its large energy content, and its surprising tunneling behavior. Moreover, this ball lightning discharge occurs in Gray’s28,30 motor and in some of Moray’s29 corona discharge tubes. It also occurs in the mercury vapor discharge lamps of a local investigator. 31All three inventors claim a net energy gain from their devices.
(See original book for: Figure 3: Circuit breaker that launched ball lightning.)
# Experiment: To verify these claims it would be most useful to repeatably produce ball lightning in the laboratory. Here is suggested an experiment that may do this (Figure 4).
The design was inspired by the inventions of Tesla, Moray and Gray as well as the intimate theoretical connection between the soliton and the vortex. 20,22 A soliton is a clumped, nonlinear waveform that tends to maintain its shape. A vortex is like a tornado. Since ball lightning appears to be a soliton form in its ability to maintain itself, why not try to form it from a vortex? Note this experiment resembles the conditions under which a thunderstorm produces ball lightning.
Form a vortex in a rapidly ionizable vapor (e.g. water vapor), then ionize it with an abrupt electric discharge. Here a Tesla coil is suggested to produce the discharge. The anode coil may be wound to produce an opposing magnetic field as in Gray’s motor. 30
(See original book for: Figure 4: Tesla coil in steam vortex may produce ball lightning .)
The electrode geometry is important. The production of ball lightning can be compared to blowing a soap bubble. It requires precise boundary conditions. Tesla32 observed ball lightning in his large coils using a spherical electrode. Walters 14 observed a toroidal discharge using a disk cathode. Wells 13 used a cone-shaped plasma gun to produce his plasmoid vortex rings. Silberg 17 wrote an interesting account of the ball lightning accidents on the submarine. The generator circuit breaker had electrodes of a fanning geometry (Figure 3). Here the electrical discharge is forced onto the wide region of the electrodes by a blow-out coil (Figure 5). Both the electrode structure and the pulsed magnetic transient seem significant.
Opposing magnetic fields have been associated with ball lightning production. Tesla launched fireballs from his large coils when the oscillations were phased to create opposing magnetic fields. 44 Both the Gray 30 motor and the circuit breaker blowout coil utilize bucking magnetic fields. Perhaps the most efficient coil structure to create such opposing fields is the ‘caduceus’ wound coil. 45 Here the double helix symmetry of the windings allows for perfect opposition of not only the magnetic fields but their higher order time derivatives as well. Could then opposing magnetic pulses maximize their stress on the fabric of space causing a ‘hyperspatial involution’ that orthorotates the zero-point energy flux? (See appendix) Abrupt, opposing magnetic transients could be important for ball lightning creation.
The material of the cathode is important as well. Ideally, a large number of electrons should be ejected from the cathode surface simultaneously. Then the deBroglie waves of the ejected electrons could sum constructively to induce a zero-point energy coherence. Moray 29 used an iron sulfide-bismuth junction to produce a luminous discharge. Metallic sulfides are known to form exciton 23 traps; thus, a large number of electrons can be stored in an excited state and then discharged together forming a cohered brush discharge.
(See original book for: Figure 5: Caduceus coil: opposing helix windings on ferrite core.)
Both the cathode geometry, material and magnetic opposition are important for the repeatable production of ball lightning. Another important contributor could be the ionization of the rapidly-moving medium. No one to date has reported ionizing a preformed vortex. The results could be surprising. Once the exact electrode strucutre is discovered, the creation of ball lightning will become simple and inexpensive.
# Summary: Most of the physics literature describe the vacuum as filled with fluctuating energy in some form. I haven’t seen any modern literature that claims it is an empty void. Yet most scientists believe the vacuum is a void containing no energy whatsoever.
To a physicist who knows about the zero-point energy, the major objection to tapping it is violation of the second law of thermodynamics. However, the recent work of Prigogine has explanded the second law of thermodynamics to include systems that evolve toward increasing order. This, coupled with Boyer’s description of the zero-point energy interacting with matter, opens the possibility for a coherence. This may well be experimentally verified when a large number of investigators produce ball lightning thereby causing the recognition of a totally new energy source.
There are other potentially viable methods of tapping the zero-point energy. The concepts of rotation and precession apply directly to elementary particles. They may be comsidered as ‘spinor’ coherences in the zero-point energy. Simultaneous repetition occurs in the synchronous brush discharge, and soliton-vortex formation applies to the example of ball lightning. The stepdown of the high frequency modes of the zero-point energy shall be the topic of a future seminar. Future work will demonstrate how the plasmoid vortex ring manifests all four of these processes. It is my hope that this discussion inspires research efforts to produce ball lightning, for this may well unlock a new energy source for humanity.
# Appendix: Conditions for coherence, Implications of Higher Spatial Dimensions:
Prigogine’s thermodynamics 9,10 requires two conditions for a nonlinear system to cause random microscopic fluctuations to become cohered macroscopic fluctuations. The first condition requires the system be far away from the thermodynamic equilibrium. The second is that the system must be a dissipative structure (i.e. there must be an energy flux through the system in order to maintain it). The key point in question is: Can the zero-point energy provide such a flux in order to maintain ball lightning? This totally depends on the nature of the vacuum fluctuations. It is generally assumed it would require more energy to organize the zero-point energy through vacuum polarization than could be returned by the zero-point energy. Here the zero-point energy is treated as a passive system similar to the polarization of matter. It is clear that no energy could be obtained from such a system.
However, there is evidence that the zero-point energy is not a passive system but actually is a manifestation of an energy flux passing through our space orthogonally from higher dimensions. Wheeler derives such hyperspace channels (wormholes) in his geometrodynamics. 4 Also, a picture of non local connections is implied by quantum physics’ EPR paradox, 33,34 Bell’s theorem, 35 and hidden variable concepts. 24 In addition, Sarfatti, 36 Feynman 37 and Dirac 38 describe quantum mechanical propagators summing across the higher dimensions of superspace, 4 a picture that Everett similarly derives in his ‘Many Worlds Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics’. 26 Note that Everett’s theory is derived from a simpler postulate base than standard quantum mechanics (e.g. Von Neumann 39). Since no special postulates are created to describe the observer, he is treated as a quantum mechanical system like everything else. From this simpler postulate base comes hyperspace, containing an infinite number of three-dimensional universes.
Many physicists have deducted the existence of higher dimensions from independent considerations. An experiment which supports such a concept is the EPR experiment 33,34 which has thus far defied explanations restricted to a three-dimensional universe. There exists considerable discussion in the physics literature implying higher dimensions of space. Moreover, there exists no proof in physics that proves higher spacial dimensions cannot exist.
In general, however, the scientific community has rejected the existence of higher spatial dimensions because human perceptual limitations make it impossible to picture. Note that many quantum mechanical events likewise violate intuition (e.g. tunneling, 40 space-like quantum transitions, 36 two-slit experiment, 41 EPR experiment 33,34). These can be explained by allowing a greater dimensionality. A priori rejection of higher physical dimensions is done by human prejudice, not by scientific proof, and it violates the evidence accumulated by modern physics.
(See original book for: Figure 6: Flatland slot represents three-dimensional space, slot width is related to Planck’s constant.)
The zero-point energy can be modelled as an electric flux flowing orthogonally through our three-dimensional space (Figure 6). As this flux vibrates, it generates an electric field component in our space creating ‘mini-white holes’ (flux entrances) and ‘mini-black holes’ (flux exits). The random action of this higher dimensional process gives rise to the observed zero-point fluctuations in three-dimensional space. If a plasmoid polarizes the vacuum in a dynamic, monlinear interaction with the zero-point flux, it could produce a cohered macroscopic fluctuation. This would result in twisting the orthogonal electric flux such that a greater component becomes aligned in our space. Note that quantum theory allows borrowing the energy for a short time period governed by the uncertainty principle: Delta E Delta t > or equal to h. This connects the borrowed energy with time. Since general relativity relates the space-time metric to the embedded energy density, could borrowing the zero-point flux locally alter the pace of time? 42 Could the local space-time curvature be altered significantly to produce artificial gravity? 43 These speculations could be experimentally explored by measurements near ball lightning.
The zero-point fluctuations may arise from a higher dimensional flow of electric flux. How else could these fluctuations persist in an expanding universe? Perhaps this process also sustains the elementary particles. Their infinite self-energies appear because the particle has access to this hyperspace energy. The particle is thus a window to the higher dimensional flow. Its finite rest mass results from the amount of energy in our three-dimensional ‘flatland slot’ at any instant. In this view, the elementary particles as well as ball lightning represent resonnant modes of the vacuum. The vacuum is not a passive system but a potentially active one. Thus, it can provide the energy flux needed to evolve coherence and maintain ball lightning.
Ether, Zero-point Energy:
1 – M. Ruderfer, ‘Neutrino Structure of Ether’. Lett. Il Nuovo Cimento 13, No. 1, 9 (1975)
This paper references various Lorentz invariant ether theories
2 – H.C. Dudley, ‘The Morality of Nuclear Planning’, Kronos Press (1976), Glassboro, NJ 08208.
This monograph describes a neutrino ether and its relation to radioactivity. Also ‘Is There an Ether?’, Science Digest, (May 15, 1975).
3 – G. Garnow, ‘Thirty Years that Shook Physics’, Doubleday, NY (1966).
This text contains a simple description of Dirac’s virtual pair vacuum.
4 – C. Misner, K. Throne, and J. Wheeler, ‘Gravitation’, W.H. Freeman and Co. (1970).
Chapters 43 and 44 contain description of zero-point fluctuations and superspace. Also J.A. Wheeler, ‘Geometrodynamics’, Academic Press Inc. (1962) describes vacuum fluctuations and wormholes.
5 – T.H. Boyer, ‘Random Electrodynamics: The Theory of Classical Electrodynamics with Classical Electromagnetic Zero-point Radiation’. Phys. Rev. D11, No. 4, 790 (1975).
6 – M.O. Scully, M. Sargent, ‘The Concept of the Photon’. Physics Today, 38, (March 1972).
7 – E.G. Harris, ‘A Pedestrian Approach to Quantum Field Theory’, Wiley Interscience (1972). Chapter 10, ‘The problem of Infinities in Quantum Electrodynamics’.
This text references experiments that detect the zero-point energy.
8 – S.L. Adler, ‘Some Simple Vacuum Polarization Phenomenology …’ Phys. Rev. D10, No 11 (1974).
9 – I. Procaccia, J. Ross, Science 198, 716 (18 November 1977).
This article decribes Prigogine’s Nobel Prize winning work.
10 – P. Glandsdorff, I. Prigogine, ‘Thermodynamic Theory of Structure, Stability, and Fluctuations’, Wiley Interscience, NY (1971).
Plasmoids, Ball Lightning:
11 – International Journal of Fusion Energy, Vol. 1, No. 1, (1977), No. 3-4 (1978): Fusion Energy Foundation, 231 West 29 st., NY 10001.
Both issues discuss plasmoids and contain abundant references.
12 – W.H. Bostick, ‘Experimental Study of Plasmoids’. Phys. Rev. 106, No. 3, 404 (1957).
13 – D.R. Wells, ‘Dynamic Stability of Closed Plasma Configurations’. J. Plasma Phys. Vol. 4, Part 4, 654 (1970).
14 – J.P. Walters, Science 198, No. 4319, 787 (Nov. 1977).
Walters observes toroidal discharges in his plasma experiments.
15 – P.O. Johnson, ‘Ball Lightning and Self Containing Electromagnetic Fields’. Am. J. Phys. 33, 119 (1965).
16 – M.B. King, ‘Energy Source Implications of a Helicon Toroid Model for Ball Lightning’. QPR No. 18, Valley Forge Res. Center, Moore School, University of Pennsylvania (1976).
17 – P.A. Silberg, ‘Ball Lightning and Plasmoids’. J. Geophys. Res. 67, No. 12 4941 (1962).
This paper describes the circuit breaker that repeatably launched ball lightning in a submarine.
18 – S. Singer, ‘The Nature of Ball Lightning’. Plenum Press, NY (1971).
Solitons, Vortices, Excitons:
19 – A.C. Scott, et al., ‘The Soliton: A new Concept in Applied Science’. Proc. IEEE, Vol. 61, No. 10, 1443 (Oct. 1973).
20 – S. Bardwell, ‘The Implications of Non-Linearity’, Fusion Energy Foundation Newsletter reprint.
This article relates colitons to vortices.
21 – G.L. Lamb, ‘Solitons and the Motion of Helical Curves’. Phys. Rev. Lett. 37, No. 5, 235 (1976).
22 – F. Lund, T. Regge, ‘Unified Approach to Strings and Vortices with Soliton Solutions’. Phys. Rev. D14, No. 6, 1524 (1976).
23 – R.S. Knox, ‘Theory of Excitons, Solid State Physics’, suppl. 5, Academic Press, NY (1963).
Nonlocal Connections, Hyperspace:
24 – D.J. Bohm, B.J. Hiley, ‘On the Intuitive Understanding of Nonlocality as Implied by Quantum Theory’. Found. Phys. Vol. 5, No 1, 93 (1975).
25 – H.P. Stapp, ‘Are Superluminal Connections Necessary?’ Il Nuovo Cimento, Vol. 40B, No. 1 (1977).
26 – H. Everett, ‘The Many Worlds Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics’,Princeton University Press (1973) Also Rev. Mod. Phys. 29, No. 3, 454 (1957) ‘Relative State Formulation of Quantum Mechanics’.
27 – B. Toben, ‘Space-Time and Beyond’, E.P. Dutton and Co., NY (1975).
This book is a pictorial introduction to multiply connected space and hyperspace.
28 – T. Valentine, ‘Suppressed Inventions’, Newsreal Magazine No. 2, (1977) National Exchange, P.O. Box 147 Morton Grove, IL 60053.
This issue contains articles about T.H. Moray and E.V. Gray.
29 – T.H. Moray, ‘The Sea of Energy in Which the Earth Floats’, Cosray Research Institute, 2502 South 4th East St., Salt Lake City, UT 84115. Also US Patent 2,460,707 (1949) ‘Electrotherapeutic Apparatus’ contains capacitor corona discharge tubes.
30 – E.V. Gray, US Patent 3,890,548 (1976) ‘Pulsed Capacitor Discharge Electric Engine’.
31 – G. Obolensky, Private communication (1977).
32 – N. Tesla, ‘Lectures, Patents and Articles’, Nikola Tesla Museum, Beograd (1956).
33 – A. Einstein, B. Podolsky, N. Rosen; ‘Can Quantum Mechanical Description of Physical Reality be Considered Complete?’ Phys. Rev. 47, 777 (1935).
34 – S.J. Freedman, O.F. Clauser, ‘Experimental Test of Local Hidden Variable Theories’. Phys. Rev. Lett. 28, 938 (1972).
35 – H.P. Stapp, ‘Bell’s Theorem and World Process’. Il Nuovo Cimento, Vol. 29B, No. 2, 270 (1975).
36 – J. Sarfatti, ‘Implications of Meta-Physics for Psychoenergetic Systems’. Psychoenergetic Systems, Vol. 1, 3 (1974).
37 – R.P. Feynman, ‘Space-Time Approach to Quantum Electrodynamics’, Phys. Rev. 76, 769 (1949).
38 – P.A.M. Dirac, ‘The Lagranian in Quantum Mechanics’. Reprinted in ‘Quantum Electrodynamics’, ed. J. Schwinger, Dover Publications, NY (1958).
39 – J. Von Neumann, ‘Mathematical Foundation of Quantum Mechanics’, Princeton University Press (1955).
40 – B. Josephson, ‘The Discovery of Tunneling Supercurrents’. Science 184, 527 (May 3, 1974).
41 – R.P. Feynmann, A.R. Hibbs, ‘Quantum Mechanics and Path Integrals’, Mc Graw Hill, Inc. (1965).
42 – N.A. Kozyrev, ‘Possibility of Experimental Study of the Properties of Time, ‘Sept. 1967. JPRS 45238, US Dept. of Commerce, National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA 22151.
43 – M.B. King, ‘Is Artificial Gravity Possible?’ (May 1976); ‘Is Antigravity Possible?’ (Dec. 1975). Moore School of Electrical Engineering, Dept. of Systems Engineering, Univ. of Pennsylvania, Phila., PA 19104.
44 – H.W. Secor, ‘The Tesla High Frequency Oscillator’. Electrical Experimenter, 3, 615 (1916).
45 – J. Bigelow, D. Reed, private communication (1977).
46 – M. Ruderfer, ‘Comments on a new Experimental Test of Special Relativity …’ Lett. Nuovo Cimento 3, 658 (1970).
# Is Artificial Gravity Possible? May 1976, page 19:
Abstract: Inducing a slight coherence in the action of the zero-point energy may curve the space-time metric yielding artificial gravity. The unidirectional thrust exhibited by stressed, charged dielectrics in the experiments of T. Townsend Brown may be evidence for this. A plasma vortex might enhance this effect for practical applications.
See the book for full text …
Appendix: On Coherence of the Vacuum Fluctuations ; A postulate of Physics.
Artificial gravity relies on the coherence of the zero-point vacuum energy fluctuations. Many physicists believe that it is impossible to cohere the vacuum fluctuations because this would be a violation of the law of entropy. The law of entropy applies to those systems whose behavior is governed by a large set of independently acting components. Entropy is a statistical law stating that the chance alignement of random, independently acting elements is small. The probability approaches zero as the number of independent elements increases.
What is the true nature of the vacuum fluctuations? Are they independent ‘blinkers’, or can an underlying connectivity occur, as described by Wheeler’s superspace? The answer to this question is crucial in order to properly apply the law of entropy. In the case of random independent ‘blinkers’, the law applies. The law of entropy may also apply to most cases in Wheeler’s superspace formulation as long as the connectivity is random and nonlocal. However, if a device were to bias the connectivity in a region of space, the underlying assumption of independence would no longer apply, and it would be improper to invoke the law of entropy. There is no proof in physics that states such connectivity is impossible. On the contrary, there exist experiments that imply a vacuum energy coherence is occuring. (See references 7,8,9,10 and 15).
What is the true nature of the vacuum fluctuations? A postulate – that the vacuum fluctuations are random and independent – has divided modern physics into two camps. Most physicists today believe this postulate, and that it is improper to ask questions about the underlying causality.
On the other hand, David Bohm, Jack Sarfatti and Fred Wolf postulate the existence of a possible underlying connectivity (as illustrated, for example, by Wheeler’s geometrodynamics). This idea has been developing over the past twenty years and many physicists are unaware of it and its implications. The concepts are somewhat alien to classical physics, and difficult for many to understand since they invoke the existence of a physically real, higher dimensional space. For this reason, this postulate is currently not as popular.
But what governs physics – popularity or eperimentation? There does exist a number of experimental anomalies 7-10, 15 that can be explained by invoking the latter postulate that can’t be explained in other ways. Mosst physicists have ignored these experiments, but this should not prevent capable individuals from repeating and verifying the work.
It is my hope that scientists will keep an open mind toward these investigations since recent theoretical developments in physics allow the possibility for an experimental success that could yield a tremendous technological advancement for mankind.
1 – Misner, Thorne, and Wheeler, ‘Gravitation’, W.H. Freeman, NY, 1970.
An excellent description of the zero-point vacuum energy fluctuations given in Chapter 43 and 44.
2 – J.A. Wheeler, ‘Geometrodynamics’, Academic Press, Inc., 1962.
Geons and the vacuum fluctuations are described.
3 – Toben, Sarfatti, and Wolf, ‘Space-Time and Beyond’, E.P. Dutton and Co., 1975.
A layman’s introduction to multiply-connective space-time and vacuum energy is illustrated with numerous drawings.
4 – R. Wald, ‘Gravitational Spin Interaction’, Physical Review D, Vol.6, No.2, July 1972, p.406.
The spinning body gravitational interaction is analyzed.
5 – H.C. Dudley, ‘Is there an Ether?’, Industrial Research, November 15, 1974; also in Science Digest, May 15, 1975, p.57.
A neutrino flux model for the ether is presented. See also Il Nuovo Cimento, Vol.4B, No.1, 68, 1971.
6 – P. Bandyopadhyay and P.R. Chauduri, Nuovo Cimento, 38, 1912 (1965); 66A, 238 (1969).
Weak coupling of the neutrino and the photon is discussed.
7 – C.F. Brush, Am. Phil. Soc. V.67, 105, (1928).
This paper describes an experiment which shows that aluminum silicate falls slower than other materials.
8 – W.J. Hooper, ‘New Horizons in Electric, Magnetic and Gravitational Field Theory’. Electrodynamic Gravity, Inc., 543 Broad Boulevard, Cuyahoga Falls, OH 44221.
The author relates the motional electric field to gravity.
9 – N.A. Kozyrev, ‘Possibility of Experimental Study of the Properties of Time’, Sept. 1967, JPRS 45238, U.S. Department of Commerce, National Technical Information Service, Springfield, Virginia 22151.
An experiment relating the spin of mass to the pace of time is discussed.
10 – B.E. DePalma, ‘A simple Experimental Test for the Inertial Field of a Rotating Mechanical Object’, Journal of the British-American Scientific Research Association, Vol. VI, No. II, June 1976.
The experiments are also described in the appendix of R.L. Dione, ‘Is God Supernatural?’, Bantam, NY, 1976.
11 – C.C. Chiang, ‘On a Possible Repulsive Interaction in Universal Gravitation’. The Astrophysical Journal, 1985, 87 (1973).
12 – H. Bondi, ‘Negative Mass in General Relativity’, Rev. Mod, Phys. 29, no. 3, 423, (1957).
13 – J.A. Wheeler, ‘On the Nature of Quantum Geometrodynamics’, Ann Phys. 2, 604, (1957).
14 – E. Streerwitz, Phys. Rev. D 11, No.12, 3378, (1975).
The author’s analysis includes vacuum fluctuations in the stress-energy tensor.
15 – S.L. Adler, ‘Some Simple Vacuum Polarization Phenomenology …’ Phys. Rev. D10, No.11, 3714, (1974).
16 – J. Scwinger, ‘On Gauge Invariance and Vacuum Polarization’, Physical Review 82, No.5, 664, (1951).
17 – Brill and Wheeler, ‘Interaction of Neutrinos in Gravitational Fields’, Rev. Mod. Phys. 29, 465, (1957).
This paper describes the interaction of neutrinos and gravitons.
18 – P.A. Dirac, Roy. Soc. Proc. 126, 360 (1930).
This paper first introduced the vacuum energy as an electron sea.
19 – Gamow, ‘Thirty Years that Shook Physics’, Doubleday, NY, 1966.
This text contains a layman’s description of Dirac’s Theory.
20 – M.F. Hoyaux, ‘Solid State Plasmas’, (1970).
This monograph is a concise introduction to solid state physics and plasma physics.
21 – D. Bohm, ‘A suggested Interpretation of the Quantum Theory in Terms of Hidden Variables’, Phys. Rev. 85, 166, 180 (1952).
22 – L. deBroglie, ‘The Reinterpretation of Wave Mechanics’, Foundation of Physics 1, 1-5, (1970).
23 – L. Motz, ‘Cosmology and the Structure of Elementary Particles’, Advances in the Astronautical Sciences, V8, (1962).
24 – H. Stapp, ‘S-Matrix Interpretation of Quantum Theory’, Phys. Rev. D3, 1303, (1971).
The S-Matrix ‘web’ describes connectivity.
25 – Hawkins and Ellis, ‘The large Scale Structure of Space-Time’, Cambridge University Press, 1973.
The basic physics of black holes is discussed.
26 – D. Sciama, ‘Gravitational Waves and Mach’s Principle’, Preprint IC/73/94 from the International Center for Theoretical Physics, Trieste, Italy, 1974.
27 – ‘Physics Made Simple’, Science News, 106, 20 (July 1974).
This article mentions experimental evidence that shows elementary particles are mini black holes.
# Stepping down high frequency energy, December 1981, page 33:
Most oscillating systems have energy associated with their frequency as well as their amplitude. Though energy of frequency does not apply to resistive electrical circuits, it occurs in nonlinear reactive circuits. The appropriate nonlinear reactive circuit can irreversibly and coherently shift high frequency energy down the spectrum with a gain in amplitude. The key reactive components in such a circuit are plasma tubes tuned to resonate as the heavy ion frequency. This system may tap the zero-point energy as a source.
Summary: The environment contains tremendous amounts of high frequency energy. But if this is so, why can’t today’s standard detectors and field stength meters detect it? It is because these detectors are in thermodynamic equilibrium with the environment. Most of the energy absorbed is reradiated back into the environment, often as (infrared) heat. Only a small net rectified energy drives the detector. There is no coherent transduction of the energy down the spectrum. (In fact, it is transduced the other way). A system capable of irreversibly transducing the frequency of the energy must be a nonlinear system, weel away from thermodynamic equilibrium. Such systems have been identified by Nicholis, Prigogine 20 and Haken21 to exhibit self-organizing properties. Such a system can draw in the very high frequency energy from the environment and convert it into large amplitude, low frequency energy. If nature replenishes the high frequency modes, then the ‘spectral diode’ could tap a limitless supply of energy.
Acknowledgement: The author wishes to thank H. Roy Curtin and David L. Faust for helpful discussions.
1 – F. Bueche, ‘Introduction to Physics for Scientists and Engineers, McGraw Hill, 1969, p.612.
2 – X.C. Rebbi, ‘Solitons’, Sci. Amr., 92 (Feb. 1979).
3 – J.M. Manley, H.E. Rowe, ‘Some General Properties of Non-linear Elements PartI. General Energy Relations’, Proc. IRE 44, 904 (1956).
4 – M.T. Weiss, ‘Quantum Derivation of Energy Relations Analogous to Those for Nonlinear Reactances’, Proc. IRE 45, 1012 (1957).
5 – J. Brown, ‘Proof of the Manley-Rowe Relations from Quantum Considerations’, Electron. Lett. 1, 23 (1965).
6 – P.A. Sturrock, ‘Action Transfer and Frequency-Shift Relations in the Nonlinear Theory of Waves and Oscillations’, Ann. Phys. 9, 422 (1960).
7 – P. Penfield Jr., ‘Frequency-Power Formulas’, Wiley, NY (1960).
8 – A.C. Scott, F.Y.F. Chu, D.W. McLaughlin, ‘The Soliton: A New Concept in Applied Science’, Proc. I.E.E.E. 61, No.10, 1443 (Oct. 1973).
9 – A.H. Nayfeh, D.T. Mook, ‘Nonlinear Oscillations’, Wiley, NY (1979) p.423.
10 – T.H. Moray, ‘The Sea of Energy’, Cosray Research Institute, Salt Lake City (1978).
11 – P. Lorrain, D. Corson, ‘Electromagnetic Fields and Waves’, Freeman Co. (1970) p.485.
12 – T.H. Boyer, ‘Random Electrodynamics: The Theory of Classical Electrodynamics with Classical Electromagnetic Zero-point Radiation’, Phys. Rev. D11, No.4, 790 (1975).
13 – C. Cercignani, L. Galgani, A. Scotti, ‘Zero-Point Energy in Classical Non Linear Mechanics’, Phys. Rev. Lett. 38A, No.6, 403 (1972).
14 – T.W. Marshall, ‘Statistical Electrodynamics’, Proc. Cambr. Phil. Soc. 61, 537 (1965).
15 – E.G. Harris, ‘A Pedestrian Approach to Quantum Field Theory’, Wiley (1972); Chap. 10: ‘The Problem of Infinities in Quantum Electrodynamics’.
16 – H.B.G. Casimir, ‘Introductory Remarks on Quantum Electrodynamics’, Physica 19, 846 (1953).
17 – M. Ruderfer, ‘Neutrino Structure of the Ether’, Lett. Al Nuovo Cimento 13, No.1, 9 (1975).
18 – C. Lanczos, ‘Matter Waves and Electricity’, Phys. Rev. 61, 713 (1942).
19 – T.H. Boyer, ‘Derivation of the Blackbody Radiation Spectrum Without Quantum Assumptions’, Phys. Rev. 182, No.5, 1375 (1969).
20 – G. Nicolis, I. Prigogine, ‘Self-Organization in Nonequilibrium Systems’, Wiley, NY (1977).
21 – H. Haken, ‘Synergetics’, Springer-Verlag’, NY (1971).
# Noise as a source of energy, December 1982, page 45:
Abstract: The possible use of semiconductor noise as an energy source is explored. The nonlinear behavior of the crystal’s traps, microplasma and exciton surface plasma may allow self-organizing behavior and a wide-band absorption of energy. The detector of T. Henry Moray appears to have absorbed very high frequency sweeper emissions.
Acknowledgements: The author wishes to thank David Faust and Josh Reynolds for many helpful discussions.
1 – G. Nicolis, I. Prigogine, ‘Self-Organization in Nonequilibrium Systems’, New York: Wiley, (1977).
2 – H. Haken, ‘Synergetics’, New York: Springer-Verlag, (1971).
3 – T.H. Boyer, ‘Random Electrodynamics: The Theory of Classical Electrodynamics with Classical Electromagnetic Zero-Point Radiation’, Phys. Rev. D11, No.4, 790 (1975).
4 – C. Cercignani, L. Galgani, A. Scotti, ‘Zero-Point Energy in Classical Non-Linear Mechanics’, Phys. Rev. Lett. 38A, No.6, 403 (1972).
5 – T.W. Marshall, ‘Statistical Electrodynamics’, Proc. Cambr. Phil. Soc. 61, 537 (1965).
6 – H.B.G. Casimir, ‘Introductory Remarks on Quantum Electrodynamics’, Physica 19, 846 (1953).
7 – J.C. Yater, ‘Power Conversion of Energy Fluctuations’, Phys. Rev. A 10, No.4, 1361 (1974).
8 – J.C. Yater, ‘Relation of the Second Law of Thermodynamics to the Power Conversion of Energy Fluctuations’, Phys. Rev. A 20, No.4, 1614 (1979).
9 – J.C. Yater, ‘Physical Basis of Power Conversion of Energy Fluctuations’, Phys. Rev. A26, No.1, (1982).
10 – J.C. Yater, ‘Particule Interactions in the Power Conversion of Energy Fluctuations’, (to be published).
11 – G. Blasquez, ‘Excess Noise Sources Due to Defects in Forward Biased Junctions’, Solid State Electron. 21, No. 11-12, 1425 (1978).
12 – G. Blasquez, J. Caminade, ‘Physical Sources of Burst Noise’, Noise in Physical Systems, New York: Springer-Verlag, 60 (1978), pg. 60.
13 – G. Doblinger, ‘A Burst Noise Model for Integrated Bipolar Transistors with Anomalous IV Characteristics’, Noise in Physical Systems, New York: Springer-Verlag, 60 (1978), pg. 64.
14 – A.G. Grant, A.M. White, B. Day, ‘Low Frequency Noise and DeepTraps in Shottky Barrier Diodes’, Noise in Physical Systems, New York: Springer-Verlag, 60 (1978), pg. 175.
15 – K.B. Cook, A.J. Brodersen, ‘Physical Origins of Burst Noise in Transistors’, Solid State Electron. 14, No.12, 1237 (1971).
16 – S.T. Hsu, R.J. Whittier, ‘Characteristics of Burst (Popcorn) Noise in Transistors and Operational Amplifiers’, International Electron. Devices Meeting IEEE, (1969), pg.86.
17 – J.C. Martin, G.Blasquez, ‘Burst Noise in Silicon Planar Transistors’, Conference on Physical aspects of Noise in Electronic Device, London: P. Peregrinus LTD, (1968), pg,99.
18 – J.C. Martin, G.Blasquez, A. DeCacqueray, M. DeBrebisson, C. Schiller, ‘The Effect of Crystal Discolorations on Burst Noise in Silicon Bipolar Transistors’, Solid State Electron. 15, No.7, 739 (1972).
19 – K.F. Knott, ‘Evidence of Collector-Base Junction Burst Noise’, Electron. Let. 15, No.6, 198 (1979).
20 – T.E. Firle, H. Winston, J. Appl. Phys. 26, 716 (1955).
21 – G.C. Wallick, ‘Size Effects in the Luminescence of ZnS Phosphors’, Phys. Rev. 84, 375 (1951).
22 – M.S. Keshner, ‘1/f Noise’, Proc. IEEE, 70, No. 3, 212 (1982).
23 – S.C. Miller, ‘1/f Noise from Surface Generation and Annihilation: Application to Metal Films’, Phys. Rev. B24, No.6, 3008 (1981).
24 – R.E. Burgess, Brit. J. Appl. Phys. 6, 185 (1955).
25 – W. Shockley, ‘Electrons and Holes in Semiconductors’, D. Van Nostrand Co., (1950), pg. 342.
26 – S.T. Hsu, R.J. Whittier, C.A. Mead, ‘Physical Model for Burst Noise in Semiconductor Devices’, Solid State Electron. 13, 1055 (1970).
27 – A.L. Mc Whorter, ‘1/f Noise and Germanium Surface Properties’, Semiconductor Surface Physics, Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, (1957), pg. 207.
28 – J. Sikula, M. Sikulova, P. Vanisa, B. Koktavy, ‘Burst Noise in Diodes’, Sixth International Conference on Noise in Physical Systems, (1981), pg. 100.
29 – U. J. Strasilla, M.J.O. Strutt, ‘Measurement of White and 1/f Noise within Burst Noise’, Proc. IEEE 62, No.12, 1711 (1974).
30 – M. Conti, G. Corda, ‘Identification and Characterization of Excess Noise Sources in ICS by Correlation Analysis’, International Electron Devices Meeting Technical Digest IEEE, (1973), pg. 248.
31 – D.J. Rose, ‘Microplasmas in Silicon’, Phys. Rev. 105, No.2, 413 (1957).
32 – K.G. McKay, ‘Avalanche Breakdown in SIlicon’, Phys. Rev. 94, No.4, 877 (1954).
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41 – J.J. Lambe, C.C. Klick, D.L. Dexter, ‘Nature of Edge Emission in Cadmium Sulfide’.
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Edited by Adventures Unlimited Press ; also available: in The New Science Series:
# The Time Travel Handbook # THe Free Energy Device Handbook # The Fantastic Inventions of Nikola Tesla # The Anti-Gravity Handbook # Anti-Gravity & The World Grid # Anti-Gravity & The Unified Field # Ether Technology # The Energy Grid # The Bridge to Infinity # The Harmonic Conquest of Space # Vimana Aircraft of Ancient India and Atlantis # UFOs and Anti-Gravity: Piece of a Jig-saw 1 # The Cosmic Matrix: Piece of a Jig-saw 2 # Tapping the Zero-Point Energy # Quest for Zero-Point Energy